using the 4x4\' cnc router at twin cities maker hackerspace
by：QY Precision 2019-12-16
In structure, we will introduce the basic knowledge of the operator. Made 4 x 4\' CNC machine in Minni apores Headquartered in hackcity Maker hackerspace ( Also known as hacker factory) It was affectionately named \"Chico \". If you don\'t know much about the CNC workflow in general, or just want some tips on specific steps in the process, we will also cover a variety of basic topics, including: if there is anything missing or incorrect in this description, please leave a comment! The machine itself is very DIY, mainly composed of aluminum profiles and medium fiber boards ( All the parts painted in blue are medium fiber boards). It has no brand and therefore no support or standardized parts. Therefore, it is important for all users to understand the limitations of the machine and be careful not to exceed or even approach, for them, so that we can continue to use the machine for the next few years. Here are the key specifications at a glance: all the information in this structure comes from the resources and information I compiled on the Github repository, which I created in the machine\'s most recent recovery cycle. The repo for this Github is (and still is) Used to track unresolved functional and maintenance issues, store all manuals, data sheets, guides and other documents, and provide a comprehensive reference resource for members who want to gain insight into machine technology ( For maintenance or educational purposes). If any specific topic is not explicitly or fully covered in this manual, please check the wiki for Github repo. If you still can\'t find the information you need, feel free to contact myself or other person in charge in the CNC field. Before you let the machine do anything, you must first have a digital design that represents what you want your end product to look like. To do this, you need to use what we usually call CAD. Computer-aided design (CAD) Is a software that allows you to create 2D designs or 3D models that accurately represent what you want to create. Different programs are suitable for different types of objects, so don\'t be afraid to try more than one program and see what works for you! . . Almost any vector art program that can be output in normal SVG or DXF format can be used for CNC. However, some low Terminal design software (like Inkscape) Sometimes, exporting with the correct style of SVG/DXF expected by CAM software may not do well, so be sure to try to test the design before doing too much practical work. . Any program you choose to use for 3D modeling should be able to output the manifold (watertight), well- Formed STL or OBJ model. . Fusion 360 quickly became my personal favorite for all of my CNC design work thanks to its ease of use, integrated CAM workflow, rich learning materials, power and open probability of the user communitygoing updates. However, like most CAD software, it is complex, so first figure out the project you want to build and then step by step learn the specific topic that will help you complete the project. After creating a digital design in CAD, you need to create a toolpath for the machine in order to engrave the design from the material. These toolpaths are generated using CAM. Computer- Auxiliary manufacturing (CAM) Is a software that uses 2D or 3D design files as input ( Made in CAD program And create the command (G-code) In order to carve the design into or out of the material, the machine must follow (called \"stock\"). In the production environment, CAM is taken very seriously, can cost thousands of dollars, and it takes a long time to learn how to do well. The more effective the tool path is, the more parts can be produced per hour, which means more profit. However, TC Maker is not a production environment so we don\'t need to be so obsessed with efficiency. That means we have more (and cheaper) Software options are provided. Although it\'s a bit doubleedged sword - For every free, simple-to- Using a CAM package can be very unpleasant to use with dozens of them and requires a lot of over-use Specific knowledge. . . Our vacuum cleaner is currently connected in a strange way and must be connected by G- Code created in CAM software. Make sure to enable coolant in tool properties or regular cam settings to start the dust collector while running the job! . . . The Autodesk and Fusion 360 communities offer a wealth of tutorials and videos that you should check out. For me, watch a video tutorial on the plane The design and manufacture of packaging furniture provides 90% chance to use for my own project! When you are ready to export the toolpath created inside the CAM software, you will find that you usually need to adjust the generated G- Code that matches the specific \"flavor\" that you want to use for the machine. The post-processor is a software that changes the initial raw G- CAM software creates code by adding any proprietary code or format desired by a particular CNC machine. Most of the time, this feature is built into any CAM program you are using, but it\'s good to know this step. Whatever CAM package you choose, make sure G- The code you end up with is in Linux CNC or EMC2 format. If you don\'t know, it\'s okay- You can simulate G. Before trying to run, write the code on the computer of the CNC machine! . Set the allowhelicalves property to No to disable very small arcs used by certain operations. Linux CNC doesn\'t like the way these arcs are created and will reject any files that contain them. Default Linux CNC post- The processor will also add some moving commands that will seriously damage the machine or the workpiece. Delete the following line from all G- The code file you created :. Don\'t forget to enable coolant in order to turn on the dust collector! It\'s weird, I know, but it works! . . In general, stick together with a flat nose stand-up so as to pass through the material all the way with minimal damage plate penetration. For clean, slower cuts, please try a flat nose of 1/2 or 1/4 2-flute (spiral). For more rough, faster cuts, try 1/2 or 1/4, flat nose, single or 2- Flute, straight flute. Also known as traditional router bits. When the surface finish is important ( Use plywood as an example) , Looking for end grinding with different cutting directions: for plastic, try 1 or 2 flutes, up- Cut the \"O\" flute vertical mill, dig out long curls and pop them off the cutter immediately to minimize melting and re-melting Connect from heat. . Under normal circumstances, grind the stick with the nose of the ball. A ball nose of 1/8, 2- Flute grinding is a great one. around choice. Cone end mills can also be used for the same effect, with additional benefits of a larger handle compared to the tip diameter. This helps prevent breakage and can even speed up cutting. . . Compared to other digital manufacturing technologies such as 3D printing or laser cutting, speed and feed themes make it harder to get into CNC work. Nevertheless, understanding the basic principles in your work is critical to your successful use of the machine with minimal frustration. First of all, some definitions: all sorts of unpleasant (and costly) Things can happen, including: What makes this topic so difficult to teach is that each machine is different and has its own combination of end mills, spindles, linear motion systems, etc. The best thing we can do is Experiment with waste with heart, then record and share what is useful to us on this machine. . For most tasks, try to start with the feed rate of 80 IPM and the spindle speed of 20,000 RPM, and then adjust these values using the coverage slider of Linux CNC during work. Once you have a good balance in speed and feed, use it as a starting point for future toolpaths. Most of the time you will want to adjust the feed speed without considering the spindle speed. Before running your work and even fixing your workpiece to the spoil board, let\'s first make sure the machine is in good condition and all the electronics still work as expected. This machine is very hacker and moody, so you can never be sure everything is OK without taking a look in person. You don\'t want your job to fail halfway because you didn\'t take a minute to see it! With the movement and elevation grinding of large heavy duty gantry tearing materials at a speed of 20,000 RPM, you need a way to secure the workpiece in place safely and reliably! Our current Destruction Board is built in 5 rows of aluminum T- Track channel, allowing us to slide the head of a hex bolt 1/4 long up and down the length of the bed. We can then fix the workpiece in a strategic position using some neat fixtures and knobs. We currently have about 4 clips that function properly for anyone to use. You can usually find them on a machine bed or on a keyboard rack, or on a nearby shelf. When placing the fixture, try to make sure that the knobs and screws do not appear on the spindle and end mill throughout the design cutting process. We\'ll check it out a little bit, but try putting them on the court now. Installing vertical grinding is a very simple process, but it is difficult to install it correctly without knowing the correct steps. If you are not 100% sure about these instructions, ask! . Perform all these steps in reverse ( Including turning the wrench to each other) Loosen and remove the vertical mill. To remove the collet from the collet nut, simply tilt it gently and it pops up from the guide rail. The host is password protected to prevent untrained members from jumping and causing confusion ( No intention or no intention). To get the current password of the machine, please contact one of the CNC experts -- Either Pete McKenna or Jason Webb. If you can\'t reach either, try contacting the wood store manager to see who to talk. Start the Linux CNC pre-using the Mesa 4x4 desktop icon- All the settings of our machine are configured. Load your G- Open with file> (Ctrl + O). Once loaded, use the mouse to fly the camera around and orient the screen in a way that makes sense to you. You can also capture to a standard view using the X/Y/Z View button. Note the cubes marked with red dotted lines. This indicates the working envelope of the machine, and there is no tool path or movement allowed outside this box ( They will be blocked by \"soft\" restrictions). By default, the machine is locked before the machine is enabled manually. First Click the emergency stop button (red X) , It should enable other buttons on the toolbar. One of the buttons is the machine power button next to the emergency stop button. Click it to enable the system and establish a connection to the machine itself. You might notice that the machine jumped a little and started buzzing. It means it\'s still alive! Before the machine can understand how to move it to where you want it to be, it needs to first understand where it is. We do this with a process called homing, which involves moving each axis slowly until it reaches its respective minimum end point, at which point, the machine must know that the axis is in position 0. You can use homing> [to nest each axis alone]Axis name] Options under the machine menu. It is recommended that you start with the z-axis in a way that leaves the spindle out of any fixture. Alternatively, you can use the \"homing\"> \"homing all axes\" option to nest all axes, which will automatically nest each axis separately from the z axis. To stop the return process at any time, turn off the machine power or activate the emergency stop button. Use the keyboard arrow keys to move the spindle anywhere on the workpiece you want the origin. If the machine is running too fast or too slow, check if the movement increment in Linux CNC is set to continuous, and/or adjust the jogging speed slider on the left side of the screen. Although we have moved the spindle to where we want the work to begin, now Linux CNC still thinks the origin (0,0) In the bottom left corner of the sweep spoil board. This means that if you run your G-by clicking the \"play\" button- Code, the machine will run all the way and cut off your parts! To tell the machine that we want it to treat the current position as a new origin, we need to use the following procedure to touch each axis: the Z axis is still up all the time, use the keyboard arrow keys to jog the machine carefully around the tool path, check to ensure smooth and even movement, and once lowered, the vertical mill, collet or dust-proof shoes will not touch any clips. Adjust the position of any blocked clip. If you want to see where the various spindle parts at different stages of work are, you can move the z-axis up and down using the keyboard keys on/down the page. With the Z-axis also climbing all the way, let\'s continue testing your work in the air to make sure there won\'t be any problems when the Z-axis drops. Similar to the x-axis and y-axis, use the on/off button on the keyboard page to move the z-axis to the position you want, and then set the new 0-coordinate using the z-axis \"touch\" button. It is recommended that you place the tip of the end mill somewhere between the minimum end stop point and the top of the workpiece. Click the play button to run your work and feel free to click the stop button if there is any problem. If running your work in the air looks good, you can now align the Z axis with your workpiece by using the on/off key on the keyboard page. Use a relatively large motion increment when you are away from the workpiece, and then use a smaller increment (like 0. 1in) When you\'re close If you need to get very accurate results, try putting a piece of paper on the workpiece and moving the z-axis down until you can barely move the paper between the vertical mill and the sweep paper. In the future, we will have a more precise automatic Z-height probe, but for now, just be as close as possible! The wood shop has a small collection of earmuffs and safety glasses for general use, all available on the clip rack. The CNC machine is very loud and often produces a constant, relatively high The tone when cutting the material, which may leave the ear tired during a long period of work. Use ear protection and rest time to rest the eardrum from time to time. End mills can break and throw long distances at high speeds. Dust Shoes should help contain these disasters, but safety is better than sorry -- Protect yourself with safety glasses! The last thing you need to do before actually running your work is to connect the dust shoes. Dust Shoes also control the suction of the vacuum cleaner while collecting dust and debris. When it moves past cuts, it will also brush a little and clean up the really rough cutting edges a little. Dust Shoes are attached to the mounting plate using a strong magnet. As long as the direction of the shoe is correctly determined, it will suddenly break! Pay attention to the position of the magnet- Two on the left and one on the right. This, along with the red sticker, helps to locate correctly. After installing the vertical mill, it can be a bit tricky to install the dust shoes, even if the Z axis is up all the way. Just lift the z-axis a little and tilt the dust shoes until you can slide one of the edges between the spoil plate and the elevation Mill. Last check the following: if things look good, click the play button and feel free to click the stop or emergency stop button. The spindle should rotate right away and then the machine will follow all the tool paths. After the job starts running, you have many options to stop the job, depending on the reason you want to stop. If you want to stop the machine to check its progress, or you don\'t like the toolpath for some reason. . . If there is some kind of catastrophic and/or impending failure, such as loose workpiece, dead shaft movement, workpiece fire, etc. . . . After using the machine, please return it to your (or nicer) Help the next person using the machine to start and run faster. This includes: Finally, and most importantly, turning off the power to control the electronics by flipping the two light switches on the side of the box. You should hear the machine noise stop completely and the coolant stop flowing. You will also see the lights on the top of your head go out.