The working principle of CNC machine tool processing (A)
by：QY Precision 2020-03-29
For CNC machine tools, the CNC system is responsible for processing information and controlling the power of the machine like the brain. When the shape of the part to be processed is irregular, interpolation can be solved; When the shape of the part is special and the tool of the machine tool cannot be cut, the five-coordinate linkage technology comes in handy. When it comes to industry, the most basic thing is manufacturing. The so-called manufacturing is to change all kinds of things from raw materials to parts and reassemble them into products. In the traditional field of metal processing, the manufacture of parts is the casting and forging welding of Mars and the hard-hitting milling and grinding pliers. Any metal that we see in our lives is slightly shaped, before we saw it, we had already experienced many times of iron and fire quenching in the factory. Since metal parts are made by machines, how are machines made? It turned out that it was done by machine tool. From the machine tool to the CNC machine tool, the machine no longer has no brain to work, it can be said that the machine tool is other machines. 'Mother machine'. The steel produced by steelmaking plants is not the strange shapes we see in our lives, but the materials with regular shapes such as plates, pipes, ingots, etc, these materials need to be cut using a machine tool to be processed into parts of various shapes; There are also some parts with high precision requirements and fine surface roughness requirements, which must be cut or ground out by fine and complicated processes on the machine tool. Like all machines, the original machine tool includes a power device, a transmission device and a actuator, which rotates the input power by the motor and moves relatively with the machined workpiece or tool through the transmission device, as for where to cut the knife, how much to cut, how fast to cut, etc. , it is directly controlled by people during the processing. Since the speed of the motor used in the traditional machine tool is basically the same at work, in order to achieve different cutting speeds, the traditional machine tool has designed an extremely complex transmission system. This kind of complex machine is rare in today's design. And with the servo motor ( Servo motor is a motor that can accurately control the position and rotation speed of the motor within a certain range) With the development of technology and its application in digital bed, it is convenient, quick and efficient to directly control the rotation speed of the motor, and it is basically continuously variable speed, greatly simplifying the structure of the transmission system, there are even many links where the motor is directly connected to the actuator, and the transmission system is omitted. This kind of'Direct drive' The model is a major trend in the field of mechanical design. The simplification of the structure is not enough. To realize the processing of parts of various shapes, it is also necessary for the machine tool to efficiently and accurately control multiple motors to complete the whole processing process. This is going to make the machine tool have'Brain'The CNC machine tool. And this brain is the numerical control system. The level of the numerical control system determines how complicated and precise the numerical control machine can do, and also determines the value of this machine tool and its operators.