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Tapping the Last Big Labor Pool The right training programs can turn people in dead-end jobs, as well as the unemployed, into badly needed skilled workers.

by:QY Precision      2019-10-25
(
Fortune magazine)
-This is not one of the usual explanations for factory closures.
Dana may be in the early days.
Stop the injection-
In Ocean City, northeast of Detroit, about 120 employees are making parts for three major auto companies.
The problem is not the lack of orders, but the lack of workers.
The unemployment rate in this area of Michigan is less than 3%, and Dana says it can\'t keep enough people on the payroll to make a profit.
Almost anywhere else in the United StatesS.
The story is the same.
No one can hire, at least no one has basic skills and they understand that it is necessary to show up on time every day. Dana is lucky;
It was able to transfer the business of Ocean City to a factory in Tennessee and take away workers willing to move.
But growth is being hampered in other companies.
Matt Coffey, president of the National Institute of tools and processing, said the best guess is that there are 25,000 job vacancies in the United States. S.
Machine Shop only.
He added, \"I have worked in more than 1,000 companies and they have all told me that they often give up their jobs because they cannot accept them.
John Ross, executive vice president Kurt J. RossLesker Co.
Clayton in Pa
He said bluntly, \"We have lost our business because we have no one to deal with it.
\"The good news is that well-designed training programs across the country --
Good intentions are drawing people from the last batch of potential employees: unemployed and underemployed, many of whom are internal employeesUrban Minority
These projects have achieved uneven success, but sometimes they have also achieved remarkable success, freeing people from welfare or death.
Provide skilled or at least training assistance to manufacturers.
Companies that recruit employees from these programs are usually very satisfied.
Although there is no reliable statistics, nine of the new employees survived the trial period, which is much better than the company hiring workers from the street or trying temporary workers.
No one is happier than Bucky Pope, human resources director, Sandmeyer steel, northeast corner of Philadelphia.
Sandmeyer is a family. owned and -managed 48-year-
Old workshop specializing in processing and forming heavy duty stainless steelsteel plate.
Like most of his peers, the Pope\'s expectations for people looking for jobs in today\'s tight labor market are low.
\"If you don\'t work, I doubt coming here to find a job,\" he said . \".
But the Pope got a surprise at the end of last year.
He tested 61-
Weekly mechanic training program run by PhAME, a non-profit organization full name of accelerated manufacturing Education in Philadelphia area
The exam covers topics such as English, math, and machines. shop practices.
\"These guys killed it,\" the pope said.
They just murdered the test.
He hired three of them.
One is monmontaque, 44. year-
The old African-American said he used to do \"light industry work \".
In January, he started at $10.
In a job, he says, working 75 hours an hour is \"very promising \".
But there are some bad news.
While some training programs have been around for years, most of them, including PhAME, have yet to show that they can scale to hundreds or even thousands of students.
No one was able to pull many black and Hispanic men out of the corner in their teens and early 20 s.
People over the age of 20 are the best prospects.
Funding is another concern.
Both old and new projects are heavily dependent on generous assistance from government agencies and private foundations that may dry up.
While none of the projects are completely without the support of some kind of company, few people get the help they deserve from the private sector.
First of all, PhAME has proved that it can turn a man and a woman no more than 8 --
Upgrade reading and math skills to a qualified starting point
Level mechanic.
The per capita training cost is about $15,000, PhAME said, and if one considers only the federal and state income taxes that workers will pay over the years, it is a deal.
But since the start of class in 1997, the program has received only 50 full training sessions and is crumbling.
So far, PhAME has received a lot of support from Crown Cork and Seal CEO William Avery, who is the founder and chairman.
It was not until PhAME acquired an old factory in northeastern Philadelphia and used state funds to transform it that he attended classes at the Crown Cork factory.
Last year, Avery had to pay for the $300,000 deficit.
He is now frustrated to predict that the project will not survive in its current form without the great help of the new government.
Many projects are not able to attract enough qualified applicants other than money issues, although they actually guarantee decent work for anyone who is aggressive.
A project in Pittsburgh, which makes 2000, has produced about 180 mechanics, including a dozen people who were immediately hired by lesque vacuum. Chamber of Commerce
But in the words of Barry Maciak, a founder, it has understood that \"training is vital, but it is not an obstacle.
The question is, how do you drag people into manufacturing?
As Maciak and others have discovered, the image of American manufacturingS.
Still dark, dirty and deadended--
Even though the average precision mechanic is four-
One year of college graduation
It takes a lot of effort to get the news, but the manufacturer has no other choice.
Today\'s highly skilled factory workforce is an aging group.
In just a few years, the United States is now the essence of this group. S.
Manufacturing workers will either die, fish or be in Florida.
Robert Millburn, chairman of the Greater Milwaukee Committee, said that the members of the committee include the ceo of most large companies in the region: \"In Milwaukee, our company will lose 50% of its workforce in the next five years.
This is a killer in manufacturing.
These people are the best.
\"And there is no farm team.
Harry Moze, president of machines
Tool Company Charmilles Technologies estimates that only one out of every three openings created by death, retirement or expansion for precision mechanics is being trained.
There is no machine in the huge public school system in New York City. shop teacher.
This is not to say that there is no raw material to train.
Even if the national unemployment rate hovers at a low of 4%, more than 5 million people remain unemployed.
In addition, millions of poor workers have fallen into poverty.
There are few job guarantees and few prospects for promotion.
Indeed, many unemployed and underemployed people live in Appalachian and northern Maine, far from places where skilled manufacturing workers are needed.
This disconnect is more evident in big cities, especially in the re-polished Ruster area.
Most of the incompetent manufacturers are in the suburbs, about 20 miles from central.
City people who can\'t find a job or can\'t find a job. Even if inner-
City residents have public transport or cars that commute backwards every morning and they may experience discrimination.
If you are not white, but white, and speak a language other than English at home, you are more likely to be unemployed or underemployed.
But open bias is far from the whole story. William T.
Dickens, a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, pointed out that many people are unemployed in parts of the central city ---
Often Latino or black. -
The lack of a network of working relatives and neighbors who are role models elsewhere and provide internal information on who is hiring and how to dress and act when you apply.
However, the biggest problem is the collapse of the education system in many big cities.
In Detroit, a lot of 17-and 18-year-
High school graduates applying for Focus: HOPE is one of the oldest and most respected training programs and cannot pass the eighth place
Sixth grade reading
Math grade testU. S.
The Labor Minister Alexis Herman spoke at the heart of the issue: \"We do not have a shortage of labor;
We have a shortage of skills.
\"In fact, the school system in the United States has disappointed us,\" said Felice Eisen, who is in charge of the Labor Success Center of the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM).
Eisen admits that American manufacturers have not done much help until recently.
\"All they had to do ten years ago was hang a sign and people would line up.
But then the labor market began to tighten slowly.
Not only are there few people, but they have no skills.
As a result, manufacturers are starting to look around for training programs for vulnerable and low-income groups
Skilled, found not much outside.
Now her organization and many others are trying to figure out how to train people, \"not to make beds, but to make them,\" Eisen said . \"\"The Non-Aligned Movement and the United StatesS.
The Chamber of Commerce is carrying out seed training programs in eight cities.
The Association of Manufacturing Engineers is working to improve and link technical education from high school to community colleges to universities.
Apparel industry development in New York City
By uniform clothingand textile-
The Union is helping laid-off workers
Workers who are unemployed and unemployed have improved their skills.
And Anne E.
Founded by her son, UPS founder Jim Casey, the Casey Foundation is spending more than $20 million in six cities to guarantee training. (
After decades of good work aimed at improving children\'s lives, the foundation has decided that a reliable way to help children is to help their parents find a good job. )The U. S.
The Department of Labor has funded, in whole or in part, dozens of new demonstration training programs.
In a way, the department may surprise many private businesses, focusing on training people to understand what the industry needs and getting people into their careers, not just work.
Ray Bramucci, the department is pragmatic and pragmatic-to-
The assistant secretary for Earth, responsible for employment and training management, explained: \"What we have tried to do over the past two years is to bring employers together with institutions that have access to public funds, and can cooperate with the school according to the specific needs, let things happen in a region or a specific employer
It\'s a hard sale.
Employers do not trust the government.
But in order for training to be relevant to the world of work, we have to involve them.
\"Companies seeking information on training programs in their regions can contact local ones\"
Stop the career center.
Under the Labor Investment Act of 1998, these institutions are replacing the government employment office and concentrating all employment and training programs under one roof.
The bill also requires states to establish state and local labor investment committees by July 1.
These committees oversee training and employment activities, and local businessmen must account for the majority of their members, according to the law.
The aim is to ensure that people are trained to work in the communities that actually exist.
In general, manufacturing training programs are divided into two categories: projects that provide basic guidance for four to five weeks and projects that last for months and develop workers with advanced skills.
A short future
Semester plan is provided by the Piemont triad advanced manufacturing center or pt cam in Greensboro, New JerseyC.
Pt cam was founded in 1993 and was founded by a state university in North Carolina state of agriculture and technology, where the student base was predominantly black and originally planned to be at 24,000-square-foot, well-
It is equipped with a \"teaching factory\" in a former cone factory building \".
Steve one, executive director of the project, said the initial focus was on very high-tech, very advanced technology.
But industry insiders have told us that we are worried about the lead.
You worry about basic training.
Pt cam for five-
Weekly metal processing projects covering \"soft\" skills (
How to listen and speak), hard stuff (
Shop Mathematics, Blueprint reading, measuring tools)
Time on the machine and visit potential employers.
Since the pilot began at the end of 1997, 64 people have taken the course and 52 have passed it.
The two received more training at a community University, and the rest, with the exception of four, started to find jobs for $8.
50 or more an hour.
With the development of training programs, more and more pt cam businessminded.
Its workshop is full of an impressive array of advanced machine tools that it leases below
Market returns that allow manufacturers to attract potential customers to demonstrate.
This is also one of the few items that charge each candidate hired by the employer, although it is only $660.
This is a transaction for the employer, and the pt cam is almost balanced on the cost of the course, excluding facilities or other expenses.
Pt cam runs other programs, some of which are losing money and some of which are making good profits.
The origin of pt cam is not surprising, it is closely related to manufacturing in North Carolina
Network for Education.
It runs a processing laboratory for engineering students at its founding University.
It also provides lecturers for the machining course at the Guilford Institute of Technology at the community college and is ready to continue learning
Education and teaching module on subjects such as introduction to manufacturing
University of the year in North Carolina.
In many parts of the country, training programs are linked to community colleges.
Two people in Wisconsin.
Milwaukee Regional Institute of Technology provides space, equipment and mentors for the successful Fourweek, entry-
A manufacturing skill level program designed by the Wisconsin regional training partnership or WRTP.
Since its establishment in 1992, WRTP has been supported by enterprises and trade unions and has entered the Foundation-
Training the business in 1997 with financial assistance from the Casey Foundation.
WRTP strictly follows an important rule: no one enters the project without a work queue.
The partnership held a job fair consisting of companies seeking help and attended by people looking for a job.
Applicants are usually quoted on the spot.
Others will be promised after the course is completed.
Some students are recruited in unusual ways of persuasion.
In a recent WRTP course, many of the participants were \"non-custodial\" Fathers
Payment is supported.
A judge made them difficult. to-
Refuse to provide: work training or prison.
In the classroom, teachers strive to improve the level of reading and mathematics, teach the basics of blueprints and machine operations, and try to instill professional ethics by exhorting or abandoning people who are late or absent.
Some participants had the opportunity to refresh the forgotten skills, and during four weeks they jumped two grades in reading and math.
Usually, nine out of ten passed the project; about nine-
A tenth of these people accept and keep a job.
Very roughly, because there are hidden subsidies and non-profit organizations don\'t do business --
Type accounting, the cost of training per student is about $1,000.
It should be quite easy to scale up.
By outsourcing to the Institute of Technology, the Wisconsin group will not have to invest money in stores, classrooms or employees.
There are only a few people and a set of offices here.
WRTP has trained 181 people in the past three years.
This year, it intends to increase by 150 by reaching an agreement with the college to get more space and more mentors.
When this happens, the project will be launched along the coastline of Lake Michigan, Wisconsin industrial zone by contracting courses from other community colleges or technical schools.
Detroit\'s Focus: HOPE, PhAME in Philadelphia and manufacturing in Pittsburgh 2000 belong to the program group that teaches advanced skills.
These longer projects have gained a share of the long-term unemployed, but have also attracted \"displaced\" workers whose employers have left their jobs, or have decided that pizza delivery is not an underemployed person worth pursuing for a lifetime.
A few years ago, seven of the 20 people in the first 2000 mechanic class were pizza. parlor workers.
Similarly, accounting can be slippery.
However, the cost of extracting a person\'s real, full load from remedial mathematics through advanced processing may be much higher than PhAME\'s estimated $15,000.
Students of longer programs usually go through a preparation phase with three R-focused points and then move into more difficult subjects and shopping work in stages.
Over the past few weeks, the number of drop-outs has increased.
However, those who have passed the preliminary stage have the equivalent of the basic training they have learned in short courses.
Most people leave because they can\'t afford to live and can now find a better job.
Focus: Hope begins with feeding, not teaching. Set on a 40-
The center of Acre law, about 20 minutes from the center of the Renaissance in the center of Detroit law, was founded in 1968 to distribute food to the poor, but it still does so.
It was not until the early 80 s that the program was extended to the training program --
Level mechanic.
Since then, it has produced around £ 2,200 and continues to graduate up to £ 100 every four months from its mechanics training academy MTI.
Last year\'s focus: hope to open an information technology center to provide courses for work such as computers
System administrator.
But processing is still the most concerned.
For MTI students whose preferred term is \"candidate\", there are five-
Weekly courses and store training \"front office\" gives the candidate the opportunity to decide whether he or she is eliminated for cutting metal.
The next 26 weeks include 8-
One hour a day, each class is divided into four hours, four hours of training in a spacious workshop.
At the end of the day, MTI graduates have a solid foundation in store math, are competent for manual lathes, milling machines and drill bits, and have some experience in computer numerical control (CNC)equipment.
Some MTI graduates enter the employer-
Scheme of paid apprentices and work in mechanical processing.
Others work on the machine tool for a short period of time and then continue to work.
Ed Dafen, 41, married with three children, including a college daughter, resigned from his job at Detroit sewage --
Factory attendant through MTI.
He completed in 1998 and now earns $41,000 a year as a quality supervisor
Control Lab against supplier Vitec
The Chrysler Dodge Dakota and Chevrolet Monte Carlo and other GM models the fuel tank.
He is studying for a associate\'s degree at Wayne County Community College and says he will not stop studying until he gets a four-point degree
One year in engineering.
In order to be trained as a mechanic at Focus: HOPE, applicants must be able to read at the ninth session
Level ten and level tengrade math.
As early as 1989, there will be fewer and fewer.
The solution is 7-
A week-long fast track plan for improving scores.
1997 of the test results get worse.
The answer is step one, step four. week program.
Applicants whose skills do not exceed grade 6 in mathematics or reading grade 8 take the exam before entering the fast track.
With a strong determination and a lot of support from family and friends, about a tenth of the people started to graduate from MTI from the first step.
Anita Richardson, 46year-
The old single mother, who entered the first step in 1998, graduated from MTI last year and chose to work.
She chose Vitec because it was in town, not in the suburbs, and seemed to offer a good promotion.
After spending some time on the production line, she is now reporting quality control to Ed Daffin.
MTI is far from distracting people, it is at the heart of an educational system that one can access, no more than six years old
Level of mathematics skills and bachelor\'s degree in manufacturing engineering.
About one out of every four MTI graduates takes to the streets to focus on: Hope Advanced Technology Center, which was established in 1993 to provide advanced training and universities-
Set up level courses in collaboration with four University of Michigan and Penn Lehigh. CAT (
Use initials instead of cats)is a single-site work-study program.
After 13 weeks of \"pre-
Prepare for calculus and other universities
Level courses, candidates spend 15 hours a week on academic research, most of which are themselves
Guide computer learning at the front of the cat building.
40 hours a week, they\'re at 120,000-square-
Foot manufacturing factory.
For automakers and other customers, CAT manufactures products such as pumps for GM\'s installation of Cadillac\'s Polaris engine.
Students start at $8.
50 hours, earn more when they move up.
Timothy Duperron, who retired early from Ford Motor last year, became the focus: Hope\'s chief operating officer said it was \"like a teaching hospital\"
In the first nine months of this year, sales were $43.
£ 8 million for $45. 4 million.
But the deal is difficult for students to reach.
While working in the factory and making money, they can get a associate\'s degree in about two years, a bachelor\'s degree in engineering for free in about five years, after graduation, it\'s easy to find an industry job of around $47,000 a year.
Duperron has been pushing the organization to be more of a business than a social institution.
In theory, tuition fees are required for all focus: expect training programs other than CAT.
At MTI, tuition is $9,250 for the entire 31 weeks.
Some 60% of them are covered by some form of government assistance.
In the past, while some students paid some money, most of the rest became part of the budget deficit, largely compensated by donations.
Now, candidates must sign a note on any undisclosed tuition fees they will pay back later in their career.
Focus: Hope that the relationship with the company\'s customers is also changing.
In the past, it assumed that there was always a buyer for a good product: its students.
Now, it is moving from \"push\" to \"pull\" to convince the company to make \"purchase orders\" for MTI graduates \".
This project is oversold now.
The orders of the three companies are comparable to the current capacity.
Training administrators in other parts of the country are almost responsible
Will definitely go on a pilgrimage to Detroit and learn from Focus: HOPE.
Whether the program can be copied is a good question. Taking a crawl-before-you-
\"People have forgotten that we have been there for 32 years,\" the spokesman said.
\"Beyond decades of experience, Focus: HOPE has always been a magnet for money to the extent that new organizations may not be able to match.
It has received a lot of federal and foundation seed funding and has received strong support from auto companies.
Personal and corporate contributions this year are likely to exceed $10 million.
PhAME in Philadelphia can only dream of getting this help, it offers a training course that repeats MTI and is truncated at both ends.
It won\'t try to train anyone below the eighth place. grade skills.
Its advanced program is not as complete as CAT;
Just start some small contracts-
Employment in manufacturing.
PhAME\'s list of industry supporters is known mainly for the missing.
In addition to Crown Cork and Seal, the only major manufacturer associated with the depth of the project is the Boeing helicopter business Vertol, adjacent to Philadelphia airport.
Absent: Visteon, the new independent Ford auto parts supplier, which has a large number of businesses in Pa Lanark.
About 40 minutes. U. S.
The unfair works of steel are even closer;
Roolhaas, a chemical producer in Philadelphia.
PhAME has the ability to have 60 students attend mechanics training every nine weeks.
But only 1998 people have entered since the spring of 141, of which 91 have withdrawn, mainly for employment.
Today, there are only about 50 students at all levels in PhAME.
The management of the company said that part of the problem was to find qualified applicants.
A community organization has 70 applicants but none of them have passed the entrance exam.
Susan highht, recruitment manager at PhAME, said: \"When the power to design PhAME comes up, they think people will knock on the door and come in. They never did.
\"One reason is that in PhAME and elsewhere, it is difficult for students to live without any income when they are studying.
Federal and state funding can be found for training costs, but it is often not available for living expenses.
This issue was temporarily resolved through a monthly state allowance of $2 million.
When the student leaves after the bursary is used up, it is more difficult for the applicant to find it.
This exacerbated the financing dilemma as the reduction in training resulted in a decrease in government grants per capita.
At the other end of Pennsylvania, the story is more optimistic.
In Pittsburgh, the founder of manufacturing 2000 realized very early that even if you give up training, you still have to sell it with the same motivation and technology.
Their project was produced in the mid-term meeting.
Pittsburgh\'s 1990
Regional manufacturer organized by local consultant Barry Maciak, who is the executive director of the Institute for Economic Transformation, business school, doken University.
Maciak recalls, \"People always complain about not being able to find a good workforce.
\"When Maciak and his colleagues gathered executives from 17 metal processing companies to see what could be done, they heard a high school on the outskirts of Clayton on the height of an adult night school course at the steel center Vocational and Technical College.
About three years ago, Paul Anselmo, head of the project, agreed to work with the metal company to design a 525-
Start the mechanics course in an hour, and shops at high school and community college can be taught after school.
They include the machine workshop of the steel center Vo-
To a large extent, thanks to a local foundation, technology companies have been updated and equipped with new and overhauled tools.
By running the program after school, 2000 of manufacturing uses not only stores that were originally vacant, but also gives students time to keep their jobs and pay for their lives.
Nearly 80 companies have signed an agreement with manufacturing 2000 to open factories to student tours, attend job fairs and pay $1,250 per person for successful recruitment.
Last year, the project\'s administrators asked manufacturers what skills they needed.
Welders topped the list, followed by electronic fitters (
It\'s not all melters, bangers and benders in western Pennsylvania).
Manufacturing 2000 now has 15-
Welding course of the week and 7-
First week of electronic assemblyWith a full-
The program has only 7 time staff and has trained hundreds of people who have been caught by eager employers.
The most distinctive thing about manufacturing 2000 is the professional marketing carried out by Elliott Marketing Group, which is also a small shop at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and the city\'s Opera House.
By analyzing the results of the promotion, the group now knows the phrases that attract applicants: \"Free Training\", \"short time\" and \"jump\"
Start a great career.
\"It also knows who the target is.
Half of the students are under 30 years old, and 20% go to college.
Thirty people earn less than $10 per hour in their previous job, and--
In sharp contrast to other cities-
Most of them are single white men.
The show never makes hot lead cold.
\"We actively follow people and make sure they don\'t get lost,\" said Maciak.
\"Those who ask for information but do not reserve a place at the workshop explaining the project will receive a call.
If they sign up for the seminar and don\'t show up, they get a call about rescheduled time.
If they did, but did not apply for the program, they would be asked why.
From autumn 1998 to spring this year, the program generated 4,300 requests for information.
Three of the four inquirers signed up for the seminar, but the third never attended.
Then, 920 of the people applied, but only two of them took the required test and 20% failed.
Of the 360 people who actually started classes, 10% dropped out of school.
Finally, despite the warning in advance, there are still some people who are unable to pass the drug test.
Final result: 277 people got and kept their jobs.
Manufacturing 2000 is now part of the new century business of a new non-profit enterprise.
NC2, as it likes to call itself, is managed by Anselmo, who leaves the school system.
It has just taken over the management of the apprentice program of the National Association for tools and machining in the region, which has filled the vacancy for 2000 graduates in the manufacturing industry.
It received a $1 million grant from the Department of Labor to explore other training methods.
It is expanding its manufacturing 2000 program in four counties in southwest Pennsylvania, hoping to train 1,000 students each year.
Still, Barry Maciak\'s consulting partner, Silva Baretta, is concerned that \"maybe we have chosen lowhanging fruit.
\"It\'s not easy for any training program to go higher on the tree.
It would be helpful to apply more widely the knowledge learned in how to recruit and how to utilize existing educational resources. Part-
Time programs that allow men and women to engage in some kind of work while receiving better training-
Focus: HOPE-at the beginning-
Should try it.
At least two projects have come to realize that you have to make them young.
Focus: HOPE is launching an experiment to include high school students in their program so they can complete MTI before graduation and be ready to continue with pre-school education
Engineering and then cats.
Pt cam in North Carolina is running an award
The winning project started in the third grade of high school.
The training program itself can raise business awareness.
Now, most of them actually give away expensive products, training and training. Dot-
In addition, no rational businessman will make a high
For a market where demand exceeds supply without charge, high quality products.
In addition to paying fair fees for products, the United StatesS.
Clearly, manufacturing companies have to do more.
Despite their complaints about the lack of skilled workers, many companies have done little to correct misconceptions about manufacturing in communities and local education systems.
Even their employees, like almost all American parents, still believe that their children will not achieve anything without a college degree.
They don\'t understand that the cheap route to a good career and degree can go through the machine shop.
This idea must be changed.
If they don\'t, more and more AmericansS.
Manufacturing will move overseas-
The pursuit is not low wages, but people who can handle jobs.
Feedback: psiekman @ fortunemail. com.
The story of the industrial management and technology sector of fortune can be found on Fortune. com/imt.
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