special report-hobbling huawei: inside the u.s. war on china\'s tech giant
by：QY Precision 2019-10-28
( For more special reports from Reuters, please click) Castle Brian. On May 21, Canberra, Colin Parkham, David Legg, Steve strklow, and Jack Stubbs (Reuters)- In the early 2018 S, at a complex low A group of government hackers are playing a destructive digital war game at the rise building in the Australian capital. Agents of the Australian Bureau of signals, the highest in the country- The secret hacking agency has been challenged. With all the offensive network tools, what harm would they do if they were able to access the devices installed in the 5g network New generation of mobile communication technology in target countries? Current and former government officials say the panel\'s findings are sobering for Australian security and political leaders: the 5g offensive potential is so great that if Australia is on the receiving end of such attacks, the country could be seriously exposed. According to people familiar with the matter, the understanding of how to use 5g to engage in espionage and destroy key infrastructure has changed everything in Australia. Bureau of signals chief Mike Burgess recently explained why the security of fifth-generation (I . e. , 5g) technology is so important: it will be an integral part of communications at the heart of a country\'s critical infrastructure -- In a speech at the Sydney Institute, he said everything from electricity to water supply to sewage. It is widely believed that Washington has taken the initiative in the global action against Huawei Technology Co. , Ltd. , a technology giant, in the 30 years since its establishment, it has become a pillar for Beijing to expand its global influence. However, Reuters\'s interview with more than 20 current and former Western officials showed that Australia took the lead in pushing for 5g action; The United States initially acted slowly; The UK and other European countries are between security issues and competitive prices offered by Huawei. For a long time, Australians have doubts about Huawei\'s existing network, but the 5g war game is a turning point. About six months after the start of the simulation, the Australian government actually banned Huawei, the world\'s largest maker of telecom network equipment, from participating in its 5g program. A spokesman for the Australian government declined to comment on the game of the war. After sharing their findings with the United States in AustraliaS. Leaders from other countries, including the United States, have begun to restrict Huawei. The anti- Last week, when President Donald Trump signed an executive order effectively banning the use of Huawei devices in the United States, Huawei\'s campaign intensifiedS. Telecom networks and the Commerce Department, citing national security, have limited the number of US telecoms the company buys. S. technology. Google\'s parent company Alphabet suspended part of its business with Huawei, Reuters reported. It was not until the middle of last year that the US governmentS. S. retirees say the government is basically \"not paying attention \". S. Jones, a Marine general who served as President Barack Obama\'s national security adviser. What prompted the top AmericanS. Officials take action? 5g will bring a sudden dawn, according to Jones. \"This is a very, very fast- In understanding technology, he said. \"I think most people see it as an evolutionary step, not a revolutionary one. Now the light has arrived. \"Americans are now actively fighting to contain Huawei as part of a broader effort under President Xi Jinping to curb Beijing\'s growing military power. According to official U. S. data, strengthening cyber action is a key factor in the large-scale military reform that Xi Jinping launched shortly after taking office in 2012. S. And China\'s military documents. The United States accuses China of nationwide Hacking for strategic and commercial interests. If Huawei has a foothold in the global 5g network, Washington fears it will give Beijing an unprecedented opportunity to attack key infrastructure and undermine intelligence sharing with key allies. Senior Western security officials say it could involve cyber attacks on utilities, communications networks and major financial centers. In any military conflict, such attacks will lead to a dramatic change in the nature of war, causing economic harm without bullets, bombs or blockades, disrupting the lives of civilians far from conflict. To be sure, China is also vulnerable to attacks from the United States. S. and its allies. Beijing complained in a 2015 defense document called \"China\'s military strategy\" that China has become a victim of cyber attacks. No espionage to identify suspects. According to media reports, the National Security Agency documents leaked by US whistleblower Edward Snowden showed that the United States invaded Huawei\'s system. Reuters could not independently verify the occurrence of such an invasion. However, blocking Huawei is a big challenge for Washington and its closest allies, especially the other so-called Called five-eye intelligence- Sharing groups in the UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. In southern China\'s booming Shenzhen, Huawei has grown from a humble start in its 1980 s to a technology giant deeply embedded in the global communications network and ready to dominate the 5g infrastructure. Huawei has few other options around the world, and the company has financial strength-the company\'s 2018 revenue has grown by nearly 20% to more than $100 billion-as well as competitive technology and political support from Beijing. \"Restricting Huawei\'s business in the United StatesS. Will not make AmericaS. Safer or more powerful, \"the company said in a statement in response to a Reuters question. The company said the move would only limit \"American customers \". S. Cheaper alternatives. For countries that rule out Huawei, Beijing is at risk of retaliation. Since Australia banned the company from the 5g network last year, the company\'s coal exports to China have been disrupted, including customs delays in China. The Chinese Foreign Ministry said in a statement that it \"treats all foreign coal equally\", claiming that \"it is not in fact that China prohibits the import of Australian coal \". \"The tensions surrounding Huawei have also exposed the differences between the five-Eye Group, which is also a post- Western security architecture in World War II. On a trip to London in May 8S. British Secretary of State Mike Pompeo has issued a stern warning to the UK that the UK does not rule out the use of Huawei in 5g networks. \"Inadequate security will hinder the ability of the United States to share certain information in trusted networks,\" he said . \". \"This is exactly what China wants; They want to divide western alliances by bits and bytes, not bullets and bombs. ” Huawei’s 74- Ren Zhengfei, the old founder, was an officer of the People\'s Liberation Army. “Mr. Huawei said: \"Ren Zhengfei has always maintained the integrity and independence of Huawei . \" \"We have never been asked to work with spies and we refuse to do so under any circumstances. Eric Xu, vice chairman of Huawei, said in an interview with Reuters at Shenzhen headquarters that Huawei does not allow any government to install so- Called back door in its equipment Illegal entry that may result in espionage or vandalism -- And will never do that. 5g is safer than previous systems, he said. \"China does not and will not require companies or individuals to use methods that violate local laws, or to collect or provide data to the Chinese government by installing a\" back door \", information or intelligence from home and abroad, china\'s foreign ministry said in response to a question from Reuters. Washington believes that creating chaos in the 5g system does not necessarily require a secret back door. These systems will rely heavily on software updates from equipment vendors S. says access to 5g networks could be used to deploy malicious code. So far, the United States has not publicly provided conclusive evidence that Huawei devices have been used for espionage. Asked if the US response to the 5g potential threat was slow, State Department chief Network policy diplomat Robert Stryer told Reuters that the US has long been concerned about China Telecom, but over the past year, as the 5g approaches, \"We \'ve started talking more and more with our allies. He said that banning Huawei from the 5g network is still the \"ultimate goal \". The West has long been worried about China\'s telecom equipment. In 2012, a U. S. S. House Intelligence Committee reports that Chinese tech companies pose a threat to national security. Huawei condemned the discovery. Despite such concerns, the United StatesS. The government\'s response to the 5g threat did not take shape until recently. Malcolm Turnbull, then Australian prime minister, flew to Washington in February 2018. C. Even before the Australian hacking agency launched the war, Turnbull had raised a red flag in Washington. As a former tech entrepreneur, he sees 5g as a huge risk and wants to urge allies to take action against Huawei. \"He warned how important the 5g network is, and we all need to think about security risks around countries that have the ability, form and intent, and mandatory laws, a senior Australian source told Reuters. A spokesman for Turnbull declined to comment. Turnbull and his advisers met with the United States. S. Officials including then US president NelsonS. Secretary of Homeland Security, then Secretary of Homeland Security Michael RogersS. S. National Security Agency, U. S. signals- Intelligent operation. Two Australian officials familiar with the meeting said Australia said they believed Beijing could force Huawei to bid, which would pose a threat if tensions with China escalate in the future. The U. S. Australian officials have accepted the message, according to two Australian officials, but imposing restrictions on the world\'s largest maker of mobile network devices does not seem to be a high priority. \"They did not express our concerns with the same urgency,\" a spokesman said . \". Rogers declined to comment. An official from the Department of Homeland Security did not elaborate on the meeting, but said the agency would work closely with Australia on security issues, \"China will continue to use cyber espionage to strengthen cyber- Support its ability to attack national security priorities. \"5g technology is expected to make a huge leap in communication speed and capacity. Downloading data may be 100 times faster than the current network. But 5g is not just for faster data. After the upgrade, the number of connections between billions of devices will grow exponentially, from smart refrigerators to driverless cars, which are expected to run on a 5g network. Burgess said: \"Not only will there be more people with multiple devices, but machines talking to machines, devices talking to devices-all of which are 5g supported, \"the director of the Australian Bureau of signals said in his speech at the parade. This configuration of the 5g network means that hostile forces or groups have more entry points to network warfare on key infrastructure in the target country or community. If the opponent provides the device in the network, this threat will be magnifiedS. officials say. Huawei said in a statement that the company \"does not control the network in which customers deploy our devices in any way. The allegations in the United States and Australia are all whimsical and have no evidence at all. In July 2018, the United Kingdom hit Huawei. A government- Led panels, including senior intelligence officials, said it no longer fully believes it can deal with the national security risks posed by China\'s telecoms equipment giant. The team is responsible for overseeing the work of a laboratory set up by the British government in 2010, funded by Huawei, to review the equipment used by the company in the UK. Huawei was founded because even so, Huawei is considered a security risk. The oversight team said the serious problems identified during Huawei\'s engineering process \"exposed the UK telecom network and new risks over time. Long-term challenges in mitigation and management. A us official said the report was a \"blockbuster\" that affected American perceptions of Huawei\'s 5g risk. S. official. U. S. Officials also pointed out that laws enacted by China in recent years may force individuals and companies to assist the Chinese government in spying. The Chinese Foreign Ministry called the description the United States. S. Chinese lawmakers \"have a misconception and a reckless smear of China\'s relevant laws,\" adding: \"It is futile to try to discredit others to clean themselves. \"During the middle of last year, Australia continued to inform other countries of their concerns about the 5g. \"We share our concerns about security with many allies, not just the United States. S. It\'s not just a traditional partner, \"said a senior Australian official. \"We shared our ideas with Japan, Germany, other European countries and South Korea. In Washington, the government began imposing restrictions on Huawei. In August, Trump signed a bill banning federal agencies and their contractors from using devices from Huawei and ZTE. Huawei has since filed a lawsuit in a federal court in Texas, challenging the ban. At the end of August, the Australian side went further: they banned companies that did not meet security requirements, including Huawei, from providing any equipment for Australia\'s 5g network, whether operated by government or private companies. The Chinese Foreign Ministry said in a statement that Australia\'s decision \"has no factual basis and is an abuse of the \'national security \'standard. China urges Australia to abandon Cold War thinking and ideological prejudice and provide justice, transparency and non-compliance The discriminatory environment of Chinese enterprises. On November, New Zealand\'s intelligence agency blocked the country\'s telecom service provider\'s first request to use the Huawei suite for a 5g network on national security grounds. Like Australia and the United States, British security officials are concerned that China may use Huawei for espionage. But choices are limited. Analysts say Huawei is one of only three large companies around the world that can supply a wide range of advanced mobile network devices on a large scale. The other two are Ericsson and Nokia. Huawei enjoys a high reputation in telecom operators for providing costs Timely and effective equipment. Still, British security officials are increasingly frustrated by Huawei\'s failure to fix software defects in its devices, especially the differences in the source code-the basic instruction set of the program. This problem means that the lab set up near Oxford to review Huawei devices is not even sure that the code it is testing is exactly the same as the one Huawei is deploying in its real environment. World equipment. This makes it difficult for the company\'s equipment to provide security. British officials say China and other malicious actors may take advantage of the flaws. Ian Levy, a British security official overseeing the review of Huawei devices in the UK, told Reuters that the company\'s software works were like 20 years ago. \"There is a much higher likelihood of a bug in Huawei suite than other vendors,\" he said . \". The company said it had promised to invest at least $2 billion over the next five years to improve its software engineering capabilities. British ministers have agreed to allow Huawei to play a limited role in part-building of the 5g network, but the government has yet to announce a final decision. The EU has asked governments to decide whether to ban any company on national security grounds. Some European security officials say a ban on a supplier does not solve the broader risks posed by Chinese technology. Last year, as tensions between the West and Huawei intensified, they suddenly had a personal shift. U. S. For some time, law enforcement officials have been investigating links between Huawei and Iran, including the involvement of Huawei\'s chief financial officer, Meng Wanzhou, the daughter of Huawei\'s founder. The survey came after Reuters reports of 2012 and 2013 that revealed links between Huawei, Meng and another company that allegedly tried to infringe on the United States. S. Sanctions against IranWhen U. S. Officials realized that Meng would cross Vancouver in December, and they called out for Canada to detain her on charges of bank and telecom fraud. Meng is still free on bail in Canada, while the United StatesS. The government tried to extradite her. Huawei said in a statement that Meng \"is not guilty of the charges she faces\" and that they are \"politically motivated \". Huawei\'s conflict is not just an American problem. S. - China\'s superpower competition: Meng and Huawei\'s activities have been reviewed by the United States. S. According to interviews with people familiar with the matter, US authorities had stepped in long before Trump began a trade war with China. But there is no doubt that the broader showdown with Huawei has now become a fierce geopolitical one. In recent months, the United StatesS. China has stepped up diplomatic efforts to urge its allies to exclude Huawei. 5G is a “game- Change technology from business, government, military, and other aspects that affect every aspect of society, \"said Gordon songderland, USA. S. The ambassador to the EU told Reuters on February. \"It seems common sense to me not to give the keys to your whole society to an actor who shows malicious behavior. Asked if there was any evidence that Huawei devices were being used for espionage, Sondland said, \"organic confidential evidence. He declined to elaborate further on the nature of the materials and said there was no doubt that Huawei \"had the ability to crack a system\" and that \"the government should authorize it to do so upon request \". Pompey goes further than most American citizens. S. Officials who directly linked the company to Beijing. \"Huawei belongs to China and has a deep connection with their intelligence services,\" he said in March. \"This should make it clear to everyone who knows the Chinese army and the Chinese intelligence services. Huawei has repeatedly denied that it is under control by the government, the military or Chinese intelligence. “U. S. \"Secretary of State Pompeii is wrong,\" the company said in a statement, adding that it is owned by employees. Although Huawei was initially mediocre in its public response, it has also become more aggressive. At the end of February, Huawei faced the United States at the annual Mobile Industry Executive Conference in Barcelona, and Huawei\'s red logo was everywhere. Senior US officials arrived at Huawei to warn government and industry delegates. However, in the face of the United States, the company has sent a team of executives to provide assurance to customers and delegates of the European government. S. accusations. In a keynote speech, vice chairman of Huawei, Guo Ping, aimed at the United States\'s own spy operations. \"Prism on the wall. Who among them is most trustworthy? ” he said. Guo refers to a mass in the United States. S. foreign- Former NSA contractor Snowden disclosed a surveillance operation called Prism. The hook drew laughter from the audience. The Europeans also retreated. In a closed At the door meeting, a senior representative from European telecom operators pressed the United StatesS. Huawei has solid evidence of security risks. An executive asked to see a smoking gun. S. official. The American official responded: \"If the gun is smoking, you have been shot. I don\'t know why you\'re in line before you pack weapons.