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rino route belt drive large format cnc router

by:QY Precision      2019-09-16
This is a walking passage to build the Reno route.
I designed my own CNC router with the aim of being the cheapest option for 4\' x 8\' DIY ready-made CNC router tables.
I think my efforts ended up being successful at about $2500.
I added some features in the first year and the price today should be close to $3000.
In addition to how to build my machine, this manual should be a great introduction for anyone who wants to build a CNC machine.
I have provided as many links to my material as I can, but I have also provided as many alternatives as I can about how and why I chose these particular options as well as the information that works.
I would be happy to answer any questions from anyone.
Also, I would be happy to share any part files, but you have to ask for them before I organize and update this version.
For this version, I design the router from scratch in SolidWorks. Only the Z-
Axis is the complete product purchased from openbuids. com.
I almost have a full shop where I can access my friend\'s machine shop in this building.
He charged me a small shop fee for using his milling machine and welding aluminum.
I can do these two things for free now.
Saving money. 1. Belts -
I chose to drive belts2 using fiberglass-enhanced instead of ball screws or racks and small gears. Labor -
I did almost everything myself.
Softening accuracy-
The cost of any machine will grow exponentially with the linear increase in its precise capability.
Ebay/China-
I took the risk of ordering most of my products from Ebay/China, including linear guides and spindles.
It\'s easy to get caught by DOA from a company that doesn\'t have customer service.
The only way to solve this problem is to try to read the comments and in the case of a technical project, never buy something that does not have a technical drawing in the product page. 5. 3D printing -
I have a 3D printer that I can use anywhere.
Notables here are some shims, belt mounting points as tension devices, and idler wheels.
Since I wanted a table with a working area of at least 4ft x 8 ft, I decided to decide on a linear track and build it from there.
In order to make sure you have enough movement to cut the 48 \"x96\" plate, you have to take into account that your support structure is also known as the gantry and there will be some width.
For example, if a plate with a linear ball bearing is 6 inch installed, an increase of 6 inch is required on the guide rail.
I fixed the SBR20 linear guide on ebay. The Y-
Shaft pair at 2750mm (108 inch)for $309.
70 and a pair of X-
Shaft of 1500mm (59 in)
$216. 60.
I did a lot of shopping to find these, but in the end I found out that many companies would cut them into the length you wanted.
I chose these lengths before knowing this, and I chose to give me enough extra length so I wouldn\'t worry about running out of the room.
You can see in the picture above my Gantry board is 209mm (8. 2 in)
Wide because of my x
Shaft rail is 1500mm (59 in)
This left me 1291mm (50. 8 in)of movement.
Take this into account on all axes.
After choosing your building size, the strength of your machine will follow.
Remember, after you have selected the length and width, you can choose the linear guide rail, but you will not be able to create your table until you know what the gantry beam looks like, because you still don\'t have the exact width unless you give it wings.
While I know to launch it over and over again, I do not condone this behavior in the construction of precision machinery.
The first thing to consider when choosing a gantry is the material.
I knew I wanted aluminum before I sat down because it was lighter than steel.
The gantry is pushed back and forth by the stepping motor (or servos)
The bigger it weighs, the harder it will be for your motor to work.
I lack strict engineering skills, although I think I can do math and figure out how much force my motor can produce and then the idea of determining the amount of deflection seems very daunting, time is money.
Also, the materials you have access to are somewhat limited, so the best option for amateurs is to look at as many examples on the Internet as possible and read their ideas, then compare it to what is available in your area or what you would like to order from the web.
Remember, this is something very heavy and the shipping cost is very expensive.
The original aluminum and steel should be sold somewhere near you, as is your due diligence.
Another thing to consider here is how your LINEAR Orbit will connect to your beam.
You can choose C. beam or and I-beam (2nd photo)
Go through it with a bolt or in my case I choose a tube.
Back closure should be more powerful for twisting.
One problem with aluminum is that it is not as strong as steel in keeping threads.
I considered opening enough holes to fit the nut on the back of the bolt, but I decided that since I would not have bolted and unbolted connections to the rail, drilling and tapping would be enough.
For the end of the gantry beam, I did use the helicopter
Coil kit, as can be seen in step 7.
We have a great aluminum supplier in Denver (
Can be seen in 1st PhotosALRECO)
I have many choices.
Considering that each of my linear guides is 2 inch wide, I decided to use a rectangular tube of 2 \"x 6\" of 0. 25\" thickness. (3rd photo)
To create a bolt to connect the surface, I weld the quarterly inch plate to the end. (4th photo)
You can see the original beam in the fifth photo.
We are still working from top to bottom to determine the linear guide rail with y-
Axis, or long axis. The x-
The shaft beam was selected, which is the exact length of my track (1500mm).
For the sake of simplicity, I decided to do the work with a nice thick slab.
The only thing to consider is the distance to place the linear bearing.
If they are too close then you lose power and can introduce the game in the system and if they are too far away then you start to lose the overall movement.
Because I designed the whole thing in Solid Works before I started the build, which gave me enough time to play the option and see it as a whole.
Finally, I decided to tilt a little bit in front of the gantry, as shown in figure 1st.
Take a look at the second photo.
On the right, you\'ll see a mobile gantry support that you might want to consider.
This will allow you to work at the end of the table.
I \'ve seen a few good examples on youtube that will allow you to do something cool.
I \'ve had two chances to take advantage of this, one for the tail joint and the other for the door hinge.
This is an amazing video of a very creative example.
Your gantry bracket also determines how much vertical movement your machine will have.
I decided to buy 3rd square Z-
I will discuss a few steps along the way. It is 250mm (9 in)
But the width of the spindle plate limits it to nearly 200mm (7in).
I decided to give myself 6 inch permission.
This is a good idea because z-
The axis is not as strong as I want and will not span a larger distance.
I have made a small improvement and I will discuss this issue at the end, I plan to have a big upgrade this year to take advantage of z-axis.
The last thing your gantry should consider is the side strength.
Take a look at the 3rd picture.
Half on the left is my gantry stand, the beam and the part on the right, and you will see some dotted lines that represent some possible ribs.
In extreme cases, the inner may interfere with your work materials.
The larger area outside will do the same work, better and will not reduce your work area.
I thought about this possibility, but for simplicity I decided to buy a nice thick plate.
With the design of the gantry, or at least a rough design, we now have every piece of data we need to start designing the table.
I \'ve included a picture of the linear track type I\'m using in case it\'s hard for you to see what\'s in the second picture, which is the front view.
The width of the table is the width of the gantry beam minus the two widths of the linear guide rail.
For me, the number is 1400. 3mm (55. 11 in).
You can build your table to be different from the length of your straight track, which I mentioned in the previous step, but I decided to match them.
This means my table is 2750mm x 1400mm.
It\'s time for us to choose a material for our overall size.
Some CNC work tables move instead of moving gantry.
This is very rare in large format tables.
Because my goal is to save money, I chose steel.
I wasn\'t able to weld aluminum at home at the time either, so it was also a decision made to keep it simple.
We come to a place again where we can do a lot of math to choose the perfect material to reduce the bending.
I know my table will sit on a wood stand with 2x6 runners.
I looked up some basic bending numbers for common steel pipes and thought the relatively thin wall would be enough. I chose 14G.
Here\'s a side note, I don\'t know the number on top of my head, but I\'ll guess it\'s correct, but I \'ve marked 11G when I check my cad file
I guess it sounds thick so I went and checked to verify it was 14G.
The second picture above is the wrong, thicker pipe.
Looking vertically, I know I want to double it, which actually makes a good surface for my belt drive and I will show it in the next steps.
For the sidebar, I played a few number options and settled on the 8 th.
After building some roof racks and several platforms that people can stand on, I have no worries that it will get in the way.
These things determine that it is just a simple drafting process. See image 3.
Okay, plan enough. .
Let\'s do something.
It\'s time to do a better job of what we have so far.
The cost of 1 \"x3\" 14g rectangular tube is $243. 32.
My welder is a WeldPak 100 with DIY gas kit.
The legend here is relatively simple.
The main challenge is to get accurate cutting from grinding disc cutting
Saw and found a good plane.
The concrete I am doing is cracked and not completely flat.
But will is a bit flashing and I can compensate for a very long level and the end product is good and flat.
I just went to buy a simple wooden frame with casters.
At some point I might revisit it and add a shelf to the computer and other materials.
The total cost of the booth is about $40.
Since this tube is a relatively thin wall, I had to bolt all the way through it and use the nut on the back.
It was very direct, except that I had to move a few bolts in order to avoid the beams.
Remember to keep track level closely even on the countertop.
The more clips the better.
My side of the table is a bit low, which is obvious on the surface of the table and can be seen in the last step.
For all the bolts on my linear guide I chose a button hexagon head to make sure they don\'t interfere with the movement of the linear bearing.
Originally my plan was to weld the plug at the end of the beam.
You can see these two rectangles in the first photo of all the parts I sprayed with water.
This is mainly a cost-saving device.
I made sure that the aluminum man did a very precise and square cut because I was worried about my ability to do so if I needed to modify it.
I took these to my friend\'s machine shop.
He told me that he thought it was impossible to do so and keep it strong, and suggested that I buy two end caps, shorten the beams and connect them.
This means cutting and cutting the ends with his shop, which means more money.
He gave me a fair price but not free.
He was right, of course, and I could see it right away, so I got two end caps and rehearsed and dug them.
We then shorten the beams and weld them.
One of them is shown in figure 2nd.
3rd and 4 photos are a quick model I made to make sure everything gets tight and sits on level and Lee.
The connection point between the gantry support and the gantry beam needs to be very strong.
Given the inherent weakness of aluminum used in threads, I chose to use heli-
Coil kit, make sure I can disassemble and reassemble the gantry without worrying about thread wear.
As I mentioned before, I have designed the entire router in CAD before, but I have shown this build and design in a more organized way.
This is a case of failure.
I haven\'t solved x yet-
Shaft gantry plate design, but it\'s done, I cut it at the same time as the gantry bracket.
This is one I am very happy to have done.
To make sure that the spacing on the two tracks attached to my beam is perfect, I connect the track bearing bolts to the gantry board and slide them into the track while drilling and threading.
This ensures the precise placement of the track and the X-axis.
The last picture is me in X-axis rails.
They are not cut into exactly the same shape, so I use the angle grinder to get as close to them as possible.
Now is the time to talk about my gantry plate design, but I have to talk about the belt in order to do that.
The whole project is a product of a CNC machine that I have always wanted. it is my desire to have a CNC machine. it is also the fact that I convince the boss Company that the cost is reasonable. I said, I think I can do it with parts for about $2500.
He agreed to let me bid the machine to see what was possible.
When I started buying linear moving parts, it was clear that the drive option would be the driver in the design.
One thing you have to remember, your Y-axis (the long one).
You can have a drive element under the table in the center, or move your table, or have a second gantry beam under the table to connect.
You can have a drive element on the side, but in order to handle uneven loads, you have to significantly increase the strength of the gantry.
Finally, you can use a dual-drive system.
So your choice is to throw a lot of money into your gantry or double Your Driving Costs.
Here is an example of a center screw CNC machine tool.
Please note that in order for the gantry to move the entire distance back and forth, the table can only be supported at both ends rather than around.
This means that your support structure must be stronger and more expensive.
If the small machine is OK, but the big machine is starting to have problems.
If you are not familiar with the linear drive options, they are shown below. Rack & Pinion (2nd Pic).
Wire rod with blowout preventer
Gap nutblock (3rd pic)A ball screw (4th pic)
Finally the belt (1st Pic).
The ball screw is a screw that is more precise and has less friction.
When I purchased the option, I immediately realized that it would be difficult to find a gear and gear or screw in a 4\' or 8\' long range, and those I found were very expensive.
For example, on the CNCRouterparts rack, $40 per meter (
I have $300 on my machine).
The rack for my machine and the necessary accessories for pinon are $390.
I bought 3 drive wheels for about $36, 608 skateboard bearings for $10, and I have 3D printed the rest of the parts.
My belt is $18/M and I bought $8 m so the total price of my machine is $190.
Note that they only have one motor and run one shaft to the other side. Very smart.
The belt is rated according to its spacing.
This is the distance between the ribs.
Some examples of different belt profiles and spacing can be seen in the fifth photo.
The larger the spacing, the larger the size of the smallest drive pulley you can use.
With that in mind, I started trying to find a good 3mm belt.
I did a bit of design with some specs and found the most common belts to be narrow and I didn\'t want to take risks.
OpenBuilds offers GT2 and GT3 belts in 5 and 9mm widths.
The 15mm wide GT3 belt is easy to find, but I want a bigger one.
SDP/SI is another great place to buy parts.
Their website is top notch and you can see a lot of options in one place.
3 m made a very good new GT3 belt in a wide format, but it was hard to track.
Even though I can find it in their catalog, the local 3 m belt drive dealer can\'t even get it.
It took me a long time to go through the belt map, the minimum drive wheel radius of the Belt and the power handling capability.
Finally, I decided to use the 18-tooth pulley (
The smallest possibility of that belt)
, Which means a turn of the pulley will move my gantry 90mm or 3. 7in.
A standard 200-step movie will produce a step-by-step resolution. 018 inch or 0. 5mm.
This is not acceptable for CNC.
Fortunately, gear deceleration is common in CNC, not that expensive even on a gear-and-tooth drive, I found a good option and I\'ll discuss it later.
Now it\'s time to design the drive parts including the gantry plate.
I chose to use the belt and also the belt and pulley.
What does it look like now?
There are two basic belt settings for the purpose of linear motion.
The first is to move the Belt and the fixed pulley, the second is the fixed belt, the pulley is connected to the gantry, they move together.
Take a look at the first photo to get a quick illustration showing this.
As I mentioned in the previous step, the basic design is likely to be affected by the Shapeoko XXL that can be seen in 2nd images.
This is the fixed belt with the mobile motor model shown on the top of 1st photos.
I love the idea of picking up the belt and putting it down, it blends well with the simple design I\'m looking.
Also, there is a large flat surface on the top of my gantry beam, which will solve the problem well, as shown in 3rd pictures.
The idea is simple.
Spread the belt over the length of both ends of the beam, the pulley on the stepping motor picks it up in the middle, and the two idler wheels on both sides keep the belt wrapped around the drive wheel for maximum grabs.
With this in mind, two possible options are for the stepping motor to extend forward or backward.
Selecting the Front results in interference with the z-axis and then needs to be offset.
Given that I really like symmetry, I chose the back that I saw in the fourth photo.
After that, it is just a simple operation, that is, to create a gantry plate that rests on the track bearing to provide a bracket for the motor and the pulley.
This can be seen in the fifth red picture.
A short note on the idler wheel.
I designed and printed these using 608 skateboard bearings and the minimum radius allowed by my chosen belt.
You can download. STL here.
Using the same idea of putting the fixed belt flat on the frame and connecting the motor and pulley to the gantry, the integration is as simple as designing a plate mounted to the gantry board.
I mentioned in the previous table steps that I doubled the long guide rail and the second guide made a perfect surface for the extension of the belt.
For the purpose of tightening, I designed the plate, allowing some movement of the Assembly, adding holes to connect it to the gantry stand, and modifying the gantry stand to make room for idler wheel bolts.
This also aligns the motor vertically so as not to stick out from the machine.
* Please note that the fourth picture shows that the pulley is not aligned.
This is because I use the same assembly for my X and Y, but the pulley is slightly different in the position of each assembly.
Align one, causing the other to be misaligned.
I chose to ignore it for the benefit of time and RAM.
I was surprised to find that most of the belt clips were drilled out of the belt.
This is a good choice to save space, unless you are made of metal, you will not have enough strength to pinch them on the side of the belt with bolts.
I\'m trying to save money and print them out, I mean go through the belt myself.
The design is simple.
The top and bottom connected together by drilling through the belt.
The NUT is supported by the insert at the bottom of the fixture.
The clamping part slides over the two external bolts shown in 2nd and 3rd photos and is adjusted by a tension bolt through the top and bottom center of the fixture.
Not shown yet, but I plan to remedy it soon.
The fourth photo highlights the center stretch bolt hole and insert the nut slot.
These nuts are threaded on the pull bolt.
When the Bolt turns, it engages the thread on the NUT and the nut moves further down along the bolt, pushing the fixture away from the bracket.
In the fifth photo, you can see a smaller nut embedded in the clip holder.
This nut is smaller than the Bolt and is a surface of the top Bolt.
The aluminum surface below is pressed by the bottom Bolt.
For the ability of simplicity and repetition, I chose to use the same parts at each end of the belt.
In retrospect, I think too much.
A tension element is enough, and my gantry plate remake may include the tensioning device on the stepping motor instead of at the end of the belt. One last note.
This looks more fashionable because I was new to 3D cad at the time, and I tried to teach myself some new tricks and reduce the amount of plastic in the model by reducing the printing time.
I have 6 such components on my machine.
Remember, when you print these to reduce the blank space in the print, they require a lot of internal power.
I \'ve designed all the files so they can be sprayed out of aluminum.
Using these parts as patterns, I drill and punch holes at the bottom of the motor mounting plate and at the top of the belt clip mounting plate.
The fourth picture is the hole inserted so that the Bolt does not interfere with the belt clip.
I then bolted the plate to the bottom.
In the previous steps, you can see the picture of my part cutting on the water jet.
I dragged them to my partner store and he helped me weld them together.
I am now capable of welding aluminum and I am happy to re-make this part as it is one of the biggest \"learning\" moments in the building.
When aluminum goes from solid to liquid and back, it has a lot of expansion and shrinkage.
It is very important to consider this.
My friend has some really good fixtures that keep things at right angles, but it\'s not enough in the end.
In the fourth photo, you can see a crack in the triangle part that is not in the 3rd photos.
The metal shrink closes this angle and the gantry plate squeezes the belt on the Longmen beam.
I had to cut that gap, open it, and reopen it. weld it.
But not even that.
It still sucked it back.
I didn\'t want to spend more money in my friend store, so I decided to come up with a solution. . . literally.
The sixth photo is my solution.
Using my drill bit, I manually dig the hole out to be a slot so I can slide the gantry plate on the bearing and loosen the belt.
It\'s sloppy and I\'m not proud of it, but it still works, strangely.
As you can see, the holes on the top are all slotted.
The top is the motor support and the tilt slot is used for The idler Wheel.
On top of that, I have a belt tightening on both sides of the belt.
In my experience, there is no need to insert in any of these locations.
When I redo, I may slot on the motor and place a tension element on it, but the shape of the interface gives you very limited movement.
The Idler Wheel slot is definitely an error and my next version will include the stand on both sides of the bolt.
Under tension, the bolts are pulled slightly backwards, leaving an uneven force on the belt.
This pushes the belt outside the pulley and it is slowly eating the belt.
The humor here is that I ended up manually slotting the hole at the bottom, which I mentioned in the previous step, so there is no need for slotting for each slot, every hole that is not slotted now does not need to be slotted.
Connect the sliding bearing bolts to the gantry plate.
Slide the gantry plate and bearing into the chute on the gantry beam.
Connect the sliding bearing bolts to the gantry stand and slide the gantry stand to the guide rail on the table.
Connect the gantry beam bolt to the gantry bracket.
Step back and smirk at yourself quietly, what your project actually looks like.
Ignore the nagging voice in your mind and remind you that it\'s not half done yet.
If you are like me, at this point in the design process, you are begging for rest.
My brain is sticky and it\'s time for someone else to do some work.
My solution is to buy an axis.
As part of my research, I was lucky enough to stumble upon openbuild while traveling online.
OpenBuilds is an excellent information resource for diy cnc, which offers a range of parts specifically designed to help you build your own machine.
You can find all the technical drawings and CAD files to make your design a dream. Their 250mm C-
All I need is the beam axis.
The first two photos are unpacking and the last one is the finished building.
To see something built from scratch, you can check their videos on their website or here.
In order to integrate the shaft into my building, I looked up the c-
Beam, and placed some evenly distributed holes on my Gantry board that are arranged with these woods.
The fourth picture is the back of my gantry plate, with hexagonal head bolts by fixing the Z-hole
Shaft to plate.
If the last picture of T-nut.
This is a connection device for fixing aluminum extrusion beams with grooves. Note.
I finally upgraded the axis.
The plate on the shaft makes the wheel run along the inside of the track and has a hard plastic wheel. (6th pic)
This is obviously a weak link.
First, the axis becomes stronger in the X motion, but rather relaxed in the Y motion.
In the case of chatter, this is obvious.
I upgraded the board to a board that placed the wheel on the outside of the shaft and upgraded the wheel to aluminum. (7th pic)
This is a dramatic change.
Previously, when I cut the mid-fiber board, I was limited to 2mm depth cutting at a speed of 600mm/sec.
After upgrading, the machine can cut 5mm deep grooves at a speed of 1100mm/second.
I intend to upgrade this axis again later this year in order to further strengthen it and take advantage of the full amount of movement provided by this axis.
The first thing you need to consider when picking the spindle is what you are going to do and what kind of material you plan to cut.
The basic term we use to discuss what we are cutting and the speed is often referred to as \"feed and speed \".
The basic idea here is that in order to keep the tool sharp and get a clean cutting surface and edge, you have to pay close attention to your tool at the cutting depth of the cutting surface.
The faster your machine moves, the faster your drill bit has to rotate in order to get the same size cut.
If your machine moves too slowly and your position rotates too fast, the blade will sweep the material without cutting or very small cutting, and friction will heat the drill bit and destroy the blade.
This is never more obvious when you try to cut the plastic.
If you move too slowly, or the blade turns too fast, the plastic melts instead of cutting, which is obvious.
Here are some of the main considerations for choosing the spindle.
In a production environment, you need a spindle that can run for a long time without replacing or repairing it.
In order to get a huge cutting speed from the machine, you will most likely make a very powerful machine.
In order to keep up with the speed, you need a very strong spindle that can run at a very high speed.
The Max spindles will be very hot, and they usually have water cooling capacity to mitigate this.
In addition, the ability to repair or send the spindle in for repair will be an issue to be considered.
The best will include a separate VFD (
Frequency conversion Drive)
The cost is between $2 k and $10 k.
If you are going to process the metal, you need a spindle that is able to turn more slowly without running out of power, which requires a more expensive spindle.
After that, you just need to find a happy medium between what you want and what you can afford.
The first picture is a very cheap 600 W spindle from China with PWM (
Pulse width modification)
Power supplies for computer speed control and variable drives for manual speed control ($150-$200).
The second is the standard dewalt router provided by most hardware stores (~$150). (
You may have noticed something that can be counted. com mount.
Another huge resource for the new model for diy cnc. )
This is a good option for a normal home CNC machine, but the standard manual router often fails to change the RPM.
I highly recommend that you have some ways to change the speed of your router.
The third picture is an intermediate Chinese spindle with a VFD controller ($500 -$1500).
The fourth picture is a picture in the middle.
The horizontal UGRA spindle is arguably some of the best.
I chose the spindle in the first photo.
The biggest problem you need to consider when you buy a Chinese spindle is a potential crash and there is no way to RMA your bad device.
One way to solve this problem is to find a local supplier who is in stock and willing to guarantee the equipment.
The new model is a good example.
This spindle is pulled back only twice.
One is limited speed.
It will run at 13,000 RPM, which is enough for most jobs, but when my Z-
The shaft is fully upgraded and my machine will be strong enough that I may be able to take advantage of a spindle that can reach twice the speed.
The second drawback is that it is a brush motor and the brush will wear out over time.
It does come with a second set of brushes, so I wouldn\'t be surprised if it lasted another 4 years, and so far I would say it was well worth it.
My spindle includes a bracket.
To connect the bracket to Z-
I need a separate adapter board.
It is also obvious that in order to ensure that the spindle is seated low enough to reach the table, the bracket needs to be a little lower than the plate.
I designed a simple plate with matching holes and went to my friend\'s shop again to process it.
I generated a technical drawing with my CAD file and carried it with me and processed the party manually.
The last picture is that I do face milling of the thinner part.
The spindle mounting bolts are connected directly to the spindle board, and these 4 larger holes are threaded.
Spindle plate mounted to Z-
Shaft plates using 8 smaller holes.
These bolts go through the spindle plate and through Z-
Threaded shaft plate.
This should be self-explanatory, and this is just an opportunity to show photos of the first installation of the spindle.
As you can see, I power it up and manually make it through some OSB manufacturing grooves.
This is a very gratifying moment in the construction process.
This topic alone will take up a lot of your time.
I strongly recommend that you do your research.
Here is a fast-running Walker at avaluit.
As far as I\'m concerned, I can only talk about a few things here.
The first thing I think I should mention is that the stepping motor is not your only option and the servo motor will do the job as well.
Servo motors usually provide information about where the stepping motor is not.
A separate device that can provide data for that location is called an encoder.
Please feel free to google any of these terms as we will assume that the stepping motor is your option, which is cheaper.
There are two main variables to consider when choosing a stepping motor.
The first is the rotation strength or torque of the motor, usually with Newton-meters.
When you buy the stepping motors, you will find that they are divided according to the dimensions specified by the Film Association (
National Association of electric power industry).
You will find that motors of 8, 11, 14, 16, 17, 23, 24, 34, 42 sizes are the most popular in this application.
The larger the quantity, the greater the width and strength of the motor.
Each number also has a breakdown of strength as each number can be built longer.
The second major variable is the number of steps the motor has completed in a full rotation.
The smaller motor will provide more steps and therefore more precision, but this is not possible when you enter a stronger motor.
The two most common options are 400 steps per turn, 200 steps per turn, and so far 200 steps are the most common.
This number will determine how far each step of your machine is moving, also known as step resolution.
This is a very important concept. you should fully understand it, including micro-stepping.
When you consider what options you want, also keep in mind the fact that electric motors have the maximum power at slower speeds and when they accelerate, the time to apply torque is getting harder and harder.
To figure out how fast your motor needs to turn to get to the speed you want, and how accurate you can expect your machine to be, requires a fair amount of math knowledge.
I mentioned in the previous steps that using a belt would cause my machine to have low output accuracy and I need to slow down the stepping motor to compensate.
There are some good options for gear boxes connected to Camry cars, and I happen to find step peronline that offers multiple options for integrated gear boxes.
They have a great site to compare a lot of motors and some good packaging so you can get your electronics in one place.
All of this convinced me to use them and I\'m glad I used them based on my purchasing experience.
In the end, I looked at a lot of buildings and then decided on the basic motor size range that I thought was good enough for me.
I did a little scan of the supposed load to hold the moment and certain cuts, but in the end, I just picked something that looked working based on a lot of DIY cnc machines outside.
With the basic requirements, I searched in the available gearbox and chose a gearbox with the motor in that range.
This is the step I bought.
I would like to point out that the motor holds a torque of 1.
Then jump to 9Nm of 7.
2Nm when the gearbox is connected.
This is a very good run on how the stepping motor works.
Obviously, it is wise to be very familiar with these concepts.
In the simplest terms, the stepping motor has multiple windings that can motivate the continuous part of the winding to move it forward to the next step.
This is much like a gear in which the magnetism causes the gear to move forward by attracting the next tooth and repelling the previous one.
This excitation is done by a pulse sent from the controller, which is then amplified by the device called the drive (3rd pic).
I believe the stepping motor can be driven directly from Arduino or Pi board (
Don\'t quote me on this)
But without a separate amplification device, the current will flood the controller and fry it.
This is the main factor in your choice of driver.
Your stepping motor is selected based on how much force you need to apply on the machine and the workpiece.
This power will determine the electrical flow required to run the motor at the maximum output, and you will need to select your driver in order to be able to provide this electrical flow at the voltage of the motor design in order.
This is relatively simple.
The complicated part is that there are a lot of configurations for controllers and drivers, and you have to go through them to find something that suits you.
The top of the configuration is the controller.
This will be a computer or a motion controller.
The motion controller is essentially a simple computer that does this task only.
Pi ry Pi and Arduino (2nd pic)
Is a very simple version of the motion controller.
They put G-
Code file and interpret it directly as the motion of the motor.
Most people will use computers as controllers and need so-called interrupt boards (4th pic)
Pass the signal to the driver.
You can connect to your computer via parallel ports, USB, and Ethernet.
Since parallel has long dominated CNC, USB and Ethernet boards are not common, but they are optional.
For a good place to see a lot of options from US retailers who still answer the phone, I have an internet support forum and I highly recommend PMDX, it will provide detailed user manuals for their products.
I chose a parallel breakout board because I didn\'t try to re-
Invent the wheel, I know I will use Mach3 later, more.
Burst board with integrated driver (1st pic)
, Which makes the build simpler, but if one thing fails then you have to replace the whole board instead of a component.
So I chose all the individual components.
In my research, I encountered the M542 made by Leadshine many times, so this decision was easy when the retailer I chose offered it.
It has enough power if I need to upgrade my motor, it offers many microstep options and is proven.
For the sake of simplicity, I chose the break out board provided by the same retailer, but I am confident because it is the only one you can find anywhere.
Now that major physical components have been designed and major electrical components have been selected, it is time to finalize the final electronic details.
In the final step, I discussed the choice between the breakout board and the one I use the parallel port breakout board.
This means you need a PC with a parallel port.
Around the same time that Windows XP is out of date, parallel ports are basically eliminated.
Part of my job is me. T.
So I have a lot of computers around me.
I found an old Dell with parallel ports and installed Windows 7 on it.
I also have an exact copy as a backup.
The power supply is needed for your electronic device, which will come from the power supply.
My Walker and driver run at 36 v.
I purchased a 36 v power supply in a package with my pedometer and driver.
Just make sure your power supply meets the power requirements of your machine.
They are easy to find.
My break out board runs on 12 v and I decided to integrate some cooling fans for my control box.
I used some old 40mm computer box fans.
These also run from 12 V.
As part of that, I decided to have a fan speed controller.
Given the simplicity of these things, I suggest you find it on Ebay.
I haven\'t done the electronics project for a while and we just built the electronics workbench so I decided to spend an afternoon working on a simple design and building it.
It comes out fine, but unless you\'re in it for fun, just buy this stuff.
The spindle may or may not include the power supply, so don\'t forget to include the power supply in the design.
Including mine.
Safety is always a good idea and you will find an emergency stop button for most CNC machines (E-Stop)
And limit switch. The E-
Stop is a button that you can click on to Stop the machine immediately in case of an emergency.
As far as I know, you need to have one for all software/controllers.
This is a simple device that simply interrupts or completes an electronic circuit.
The controller detects this and stops the machine.
The limit switch does the same thing, but the machine moving too far in any direction triggers the switch instead of the user triggering the stop.
These are simply installed on your frame in order to contact the switch before the machine runs out of space. I bought my E-
Stop and limit ebay and E-
Stop works good my cheap limit switches are often annoying and I have to disable them until I can fully Research and solve the problem.
Everything is connected to the wire.
You need to connect the wires to all the parts on the machine and outside the box.
The wire needs a specification large enough to carry the current rated by the Assembly.
I chose some of the 4 conductor 14G speaker wires we laid for the signal cable of the stepping motor and laid 2 conductors 20G for my limit switch
Stop and there are all kinds of wires I have laid for the inside of the box.
Don\'t forget that your box needs power.
The I-standard EC309 power port I bought (
Standard computer power cord)
Take a bunch of power cables from ebay that I put around.
I also bought some 4-pin quick disconnect so I can replace the stepping motor in a way that doesn\'t cut any wires if needed.
To color my wire, I also purchased a color shrink package.
This is not a must, but after some research I decided to include the smoothing capacitor.
Basically, they are a reserve of power for the moment.
For example, if all of your motors need maximum power at the same time, it is possible that your voltage will drop to the fact that the stepping motor does not have enough power to maintain and that they may slip.
At this point, your coordinates will be closed and your parts will be destroyed.
I found some online calculators for smoothing capacitors to determine how many capacitors I need and then went to my local electronicscycler (now closed -
Rip jb Sanders)
Found a recent match
These are two 10,000 uF 100 V capacitors.
Big capacitors are dangerous.
Please know what you are doing.
My last little detail is the power switch.
I had deactivated a bunch of computers earlier that year, and one of them was this old giant box, which must have been a box 286 or earlier.
It has a huge power switch that reminds me of the first computer my dad brought home.
It was big and red and made a wonderful move for it.
I saved it for something special, that\'s it.
This is a direct link to this image.
It is essential to organize, especially when you reach the cabling stage.
So I decided to sit down and plan this part of the building to the maximum.
Knowing that I will eventually post this, I decided to make it available as much as possible.
The wire color in this schematic matches the actual color of the wire in my build.
I don\'t know how much I can say here.
The schematic should answer most questions, build it honestly, and your self will provide you with the most useful experience.
When you go and build your control box, you\'ll find it a lot easier to build.
I will make a note that some breakout boards provide space for each limit switch.
This break out board wants them all tied to a chain.
All of this must be connected in the same way, either \"normally closed\" or \"normally open\", which can then be selected in the control software.
Please ask questions if you have any questions.
The frame is done and now you have a bunch of parts ready to connect it.
It\'s time to organize.
I took all my stuff and put it in my workspace, including all the tools I thought I needed.
It\'s a good time to stare at your building for hours until you remember one thing you forgot.
You always forget something.
I decided to take it up a notch and get a little fancy with my control box.
The box is small enough to fit in the rack mount server chassis we have placed.
I put it on the ball bearing drawer slide and make the top and end with transparent plexiglass so everything can be seen.
The next step will be to complete the photo to show this.
The first step is to grab all your main components and test arrangements until you find something that works.
My capacitors and power supplies need to be installed so I designed and printed these.
The chassis of the step Drive, spindle drive, and break-down board has built-in mounting labels.
Note that you should pay close attention to grounding if you are using a metal box.
The stepping driver sends something similar to the audio signal and is vulnerable to noise.
The ground loop is the main source of noise.
My box is wood, thus eliminating this concern.
I should say that I chose wood because this is what I have and the result is unintentional.
Important: This may be your last visit to your driver, so it\'s also your last easy access to the dip switch set to maintain strength and microstep settings. (
Displayed in the last photo)
I don\'t remember what I chose in terms of microstep, but I kept it low.
These drivers allow up to 25,600 steps per revolution, but this is a misnomer.
The ability to stick to this precision depends entirely on the quality of your stepping motor, and no matter how good your drive is, most motors are unable to balance between two steps.
I believe I chose the 1/8 microstep which means every step of my motor (200)
The driver divided each step into eight
Take effective measures to make my resolution 1600 steps per turn.
Once the basic layout of the main components is implemented, the basic idea of physical wiring layout is required.
There are four different sets of voltages in my box: 120 V Wall voltage including ground voltage, 36 v power supply for stepping motors and drives, 12 v power supply for disconnecting boards and fans, the 5 v power supply from the breakout board to the drive turns on the signal.
I decided to use the bus bar to create the center point and pass the voltage to the respective components.
I installed these busbars on the wall and started wiring.
I will wire the 120 V first and run along the bottom. (
Anyone who pays attention will see a relay in the photo and I realize this is not needed as a relay is built into the breakout board)
Once I ran 120 V, I ran 5 V, then 12 V and then 36 V.
I included two fuses in this version, one for 120 V and one for 36 V.
The wiring of the drive can be a bit confusing because there is (typically)
The four-wire and your motor may have different labels than your drive.
The 5 v bus also does some analysis because all 5 v leads are counter-intuitive from the same place, which allows you to decode-PUL, -DIR, and -ENA.
Fortunately for me, everything was successful in the first attempt.
With the internal organization and wiring, now is the time to complete the box by wiring the external wiring from the box.
I have a fan, power switch, fan speed controller knob and spindle speed knob in front of my box.
The rear has wires for parallel ports, fans, power ports, stepping motors, limit switches, and stop switches.
We cut all the holes with the dremel tool.
For the wire, I cut out a rectangle and 3D printed a removable panel with holes on it so I can unplug all the wires immediately if needed.
This can be seen in the last two pictures.
See it in action, as you can see in the picture above, I also provide a bus bar for all my ins and outs.
This makes it easy for me to test the leads and remove the control box without cutting any wires.
The box is also locked to prevent tampering.
3rd the picture shows the fact that I used a little bit of the remaining cable tray to hold the box in and out of the box.
Since the top is clear, I also tag everything.
This is a good show.
I mentioned earlier that I was originally going to print my cable tray (drag chain)
But on several test photos, it\'s clear that the Internet is cheaper.
I chose two different sizes.
It\'s a very big one for Y-
X axis and medium axisAxis.
I have designed the brackets and brackets for both customization.
The blue bracket above is X-Axis.
This is something that changes color due to the acetone test.
My stand for Y-printAxis (
Hardly seen in the fourth photo)
I was weak and as I walked around the table I kept taking them down.
I chose to make them out of wood (6th photo)
And replaced them when they were broken.
I should have done this from the beginning because they are going to be stronger and many times faster.
My big tow chain opened some doors for you to put the wires into the tray.
I don\'t recommend this enough.
I had to pull the wires into the middle chain, which was an incredible pain.
The wires I use are many times larger than I need and come with a very thick sheath, which doesn\'t help.
The first three pictures are cable chain brackets.
By drilling and tapping, all my brackets and brackets are attached to the metal frame.
The replaced wooden bracket is screwed into the wooden base.
There are two types of limit switches.
Home switch and limit switch.
The home switch is located at zero point or minimum zero point of the axis.
This is called your home and therefore your home.
The position of the limit switch can detect when your machine reaches the maximum distance from home, and they will set a limit on the movement of your machine, hence the name.
Both home and limit switches set limits on the movement of the machine, but home switches also detect when the machine reaches zero and then let the controller remember where the home is.
When you tell your controller to go home, it moves each axis one at a time until each time the axis is set to zero, each home switch is triggered one by one.
On my break out Board, the home and limit switches have separate places to connect to the board.
Some breakout boards are bound to each switch.
These switches can be run in parallel or in series.
If they are in series, then they need to go through the \"normally closed\" pin.
If they run in parallel, use the \"always on\" pin.
To reflect this, you must change the settings in the control software.
About half of my limit switches need brackets to attach them to the machine.
I printed these in 3D.
The other half is directly connected to the machine through drilling and tapping holes.
These two examples can be seen in the photo above.
All my connections are welded and then wrapped in a color coded tube to shrink.
In the picture above, yellow is the limit and blue is the home. *note.
My switch is very wrong.
I think they are cheap.
They are constantly offset by vibration or static electricity.
It is impossible to leave the machine.
They are now disabled because I have confidence in the operation of my machine and no longer worry that it will tear itself apart.
All my stepping motors are connected to the Molex 4-pin connector to get them disconnected quickly.
All joints are welded and contracted with a colored coded pipe to indicate the axis.
As shown in the figure, the spindle is also disconnected by a quick disconnect.
The brain of the whole operation is the computer.
I decided to walk the tried real route of Mach3 software running on machines with parallel ports.
Mach3 is the most popular software for home diy cnc because it has a wide user base and a lot of knowledge.
There is an updated version of Mach4, which is a complete rewrite from scratch.
It is designed into components.
A version that is intended for use, such as domestic or industrial use.
The biggest difference is that it has native support for machines connected to USB or Ethernet, while Mach3 is not, and plug-ins are requiredins.
My CPU is the old Dell that Windows XP originally came.
I have the same part box as shown in the photo.
It\'s been a while, but given that I have a bunch of RAM, I think I\'ll fill as much as I can, or I can find it in the box and put Windows 7 on it.
The installation of Mach3 was a bit of a hassle as it was written before Vista, but it was installed in compatible mode, not much trouble.
Some drivers will also be installed in the software.
There will be 4 possible launch icons for the final installation.
The configuration you will use will be machine-based.
Most people use Mach3Mill.
Setting up Mach3 to work with your machine is a long topic, so it has its own tutorial.
This is a manual. This is a video.
There doesn\'t seem to be a note at this point, which is a shame, but I\'ll go through the basics very quickly. DISCLAIMER.
Don\'t expect it to be so simple.
It took me a few days and hundreds of attempts to get everything working.
Your machine should be set up now.
I designed and printed my own vacuum nozzle for my CNC.
This is a simple design to fix the fixture at the bottom of the spindle using a hose fixture.
The size on the other side is perfect for the end of my vacuum hose.
There was a slot on the ring and I chopped the broom and stuck the bristles in it with my hands.
I made a long and short version.
The long version is too long, the short version works in most applications, except that I need to do deep cutting many times.
The blue air nozzle is connected using the bailing line.
Having an air nozzle is one of the most important things you can do for your cnc machine.
It enables me to greatly speed up the machine in order to perform the cutting operation where the chips cut before need to be cleared.
I also built a small dust collection unit using dust agents, buckets and my wet/dry Vac purchased from Amazon.
This effect is very good.
Fine dust will still get into my vacuum as I don\'t use the super fine filter so some super fine dust will release the vacuum.
I have a 4 \"ventilation fan that cleans the room and I blow the exhaust from the vacuum directly into the ventilation unit.
The room was very breathable.
I can definitely tell when the fan is not turned on.
I have done a lot of research, set up a dust collection system and set up a system that can pass the OSHA standard, which is not a small task.
Dust, especially dust from composites, is not a joke, you should always wear protective gear if your vacuum cleaner is not first class.
If you have a chance, be sure to vent outside.
Every two jobs I empty my bucket and shake out my filter.
I wait until my machine works so I can use it to cut off the desktop and make sure right angles and smooth edges are all over it.
My table is larger in both directions than a 4x8 mid-sized board.
This means that I need 3 pieces for the maximum area of the deck.
I split the table into pieces to make sure the two seams fall on the frame track.
Draw the file and cut it out with a machine.
I weld the labels on the frame track at a uniform interval and drill holes on those labels.
I then screw the table top through the TAB and fix the pieces to my table.
My table surfaced and this is the next step, but in that operation I realized that there was a lot of vibration on the table which made a lot of noise, because the desktop vibrates on the frame very quickly.
I decided to fill the surface in the frame to solve the problem.
In 3rd photos, you can see that I changed to white after using clear.
The possibility that your desktop is perfect level relative to your gantry is almost zero.
That\'s why the first thing you have to do after pasting the desktop is to plane it with your machine.
First of all, if you have not yet determined the absolute maximum range on the table surface, you need to determine.
Move the spindle to home and set everything to zero.
Then move it to the farthest distance of X and Y and write down the numbers.
Next, using the machine, by moving the spindle around the table and touching it on the table, write down the height value registered on the computer to determine the highest point and lowest point on the table.
I set the lowest point to zero (Z-xis)
Then move it back to your cam program and generate a G-
Code file, which uses the distance from the lowest point of the table to the highest point as the cutting depth, cutting the pocket operation to the limit of motion.
If your differences are extreme, you may have to do this in more than one cut.
I run back and forth on X
Axis, then repeat the action to move back and forth in Y-
Shaft to ensure smooth surface.
My total difference is about 5mm.
The first photo shows the lowest place on my desk and almost no cutting is required.
The second photo shows the highest point on my desk that needs the maximum amount of cutting.
Your machine needs some way to connect your artifacts to the desktop.
There are many options for this.
The best option is to set up a vacuum gauge that I will eventually do.
The first two photos show an example of a simple version and a very complex version.
Most milling machines have T-
The slots in them have clips that can slide in these slots so that your parts can be bolted to the table as shown in figure 3rd.
A smaller version is seen in the fourth photo, which has a simple clip that can be used in t-slot.
This is the best option to make a good compromise between price and availability.
The fifth photo is an example of a cheap option with a bunch of holes on your desk that you can hold with a clip.
I used the cheap method shown in the sixth photo to use the flange nut.
I have about 100 holes on my desk and this is a number I picked, hopefully it will be enough.
I recommend twice the number now.
I have carefully considered the holes in the CAD software that do not interfere with the frame track below.
I then created a drilling operation using the CAM program to drill all of these holes with my machine.
Each hole is filled with a flange nut in each hole, and the nut is tightened using washers and bolts in order to secure it on the wood.
I did cut some clips and copied the design I found online.
They are similar to what is shown in the fifth photo.
Their job is basic, but I won\'t show it to them because I don\'t like them.
I use clips for the whole piece of wood, but for a large part of the time I just screw the workpiece directly to the table top.
I discussed bits very quickly, but as a note, some bits have a verse cut up.
Plastic usually responds well to up
But this often leads to a variety of problems.
This is the most useful vacuum table.
The vacuum table is also the best choice for cutting with a traction knife.
A lot of knowledge is required for successful operations.
The first thing is tools.
This is the correct choice and use of the machine.
Obviously, different shapes will create a small forest of different shapes in your work, but this is only a small part of the whole story.
Let\'s take a look at the basics.
The spindle is fixed on the drill bit using a chuck called collet.
There are many different kinds of colleagues who have different names.
For example, mine is ER16 collet.
16 indicates the width of collet in mm.
In this case, this limits the maximum shaft size 11mm that collet can accommodate.
I use drill bits with 1/8 and 1/4 axes.
This will change when I upgrade my spindle.
When you buy something, you need to pay attention to the dimensions of the shaft to make sure you can use it on the machine.
There will be many attributes for bits.
The shape, length, width, quantity and up of the flute-cut or down-cut.
This blade is called flute.
There may be one or more flute.
Usually 2 or 4, but 1 or 3 is not uncommon.
A little bit with two flutes means that your drill bit will bite two or produce two chips every revolution.
The most important thing you need to learn about your bits is called feed & speed.
Feeding refers to the speed at which the drill bit travels in the material.
Speed refers to the speed at which your drill bit turns.
The combination of the two determines the chip size or bite, and each time the flute interacts with the material, your bite is taken out of the material.
Let\'s make math simple here.
Let\'s say your bit has two flutes, moving 1 inch per minute and turning once a minute.
This means that in that minute, your drill bit will be bitten by two bites per chip of 1/2 pound material.
The purpose of this calculation is to make sure you don\'t eat a big mouth or two.
Too big, you will break your position, too small, you will generate excess heat, which will dim your position.
Correct adherence to feed and speed will ensure a long tool life.
Feed and speed should be recalculated for each bit and for each material.
The harder material requires a smaller bite, and the softer material requires a larger bite.
When you work with wood, the key is to make sure that the machine produces debris instead of dust.
In plastic, you want your machine to produce the chip and it will melt the material instead of cutting the material if it moves slowly.
The same important reason is the depth of cutting.
The deeper you want to cut, the faster you want to rotate, the stronger the bits and machines you need.
Cutting too much material can cause deformation of the machine, inaccurate cutting, poor surface quality.
When I first built my machine
There are some slopes to the axis, which is often also called game or wiggle space.
As the pressure has a growing effect on me, it will suddenly take a bite and release the pressure, and then the process will repeat.
This happens very quickly and leads to the so-called chat.
The sound is loud and limits your ability to do deep cleaning cutting to a large extent.
After I upgraded to the machine for the first time, I was able to increase from 1/8 to 2mm with 5mm bits and it was quieter.
Let\'s take a look at the steps-Down and Step-Over.
If you can make a 5mm deep cut, but you need a total of 15mm deep, you need to make 3 passes.
This is the so-called step down.
Step is the amount your bit can move horizontally during the purge operation, such as creating a void in the workpiece.
This is usually set as a percentage of the bit width.
I have a stand mill of 1 inch and I usually only do 50% steps, which means it will decrease by 1/2 every time it passes.
If I do a very shallow cut, I can add this cut, but my idea is that you can remove the maximum amount of wood per turn, and need to stay the same to avoid damage to your machine or machine
The last bit of information to be introduced here is the traditional. Climb milling.
Please refer to the last photo and see the difference.
You can also choose and explore the reasons why you can read this article.
In my experience with most of the wood, there is no difference between the two.
It is more obvious in the plastic, and it may be very obvious in the surface quality of the metal.
Experiment on a case-by-case basis based on your own knowledge.
This is an important point for people who have just come into contact with CNC.
Changing an idea from a concept to a real idea basically requires three software environments.
This is CAD, CAM and Control.
For amateurs, when you try to get a solution to these three problems through bankruptcy, this will be one of your biggest obstacles.
CAD is the representative of computer-aided design.
You may be familiar with this.
SolidWorks, Sketchup, and Auto Desk suits are the most popular options.
These are the tools you use to create 3D models.
I won\'t go into details, but I use SolidWorks because I mainly Design Technical parts.
If a person intends to use something else like art, he may choose something else.
CAM represents computer-aided manufacturing.
This is the tool you use to convert 3D models into machine instructions.
This instruction is called G-Code.
The CAM program is the bit you choose to use and set properties (such as step-over, step-
Downward and milling directions.
Some CAD programs will include CAM options, or there will be several CAM options that can be purchased and run in the CAD program.
Solidworks cam is the best example for Solidworks.
It\'s very expensive because it\'s everything anyone nee
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