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Medium Sized DIY - CNC 20\" X 30\" Work Area

by:QY Precision      2019-11-23
I am sharing my adventures in researching, designing, building and debugging CNC machines.
Hopefully some of these classes will save time for the next person to take this adventure.
I\'m providing step-by-step instruction building guidelines from memory, so there may be some steps that don\'t go in order.
I also discussed how I handled design, some pitfalls, software decisions, electrical wiring, and debugging knowledge.
Hopefully this will solve some of the problems you have when considering designing and building your own CNC.
This project is not for people who are guilty.
Parts Manufacturing requires quite a bit of skill, but with a reasonable workshop and honed skill, this is very viable.
I have been trying to build a CNC for more than a year.
I searched for instructures, Pinterest, and YouTube videos for design concepts and layouts.
My budget is limited ($1500)
In my mind I want to use the linear guide and the ball screw because of its rigidity, accuracy and repeatability.
I am unable to use a rolling mill or lathe, so my machining capacity is limited to floor drill presses, band saws, table saws, and a variety of electric hand tools.
I used SolidWorks in the actual design. Disclaimer.
I have tried to share everything I have freely.
I have no guarantee.
Hole position, part size, difference in actual purchased parts, wood thickness all result in incorrect installation of parts.
You should check all the design/geometry with your actual parts.
I provide a pdf of all the parts made ,(
Not purchased parts).
I will not provide CAD geometry or. dfx files. a.
I want a work area around 20 \"x 30\" in Y-
Avoid any shelves.
I have set 20mm linear guides (SBR20’s)
And 16mm screws (RM1605’s).
I chose support rails and suspension rails because of their stiffness.
I lost 6 inch. about 150mm)
Travel caused by the spacing on the bearing block. For the Z-
Axis, I only want about 6 inch of the trip, so I have to ask the eBay vendor to modify a standard package.
I purchased the sbr20 in length of 300, 700 and 1000mm.
In the end, the RM1605 ball screws are: 350, 750 and 1050mm.
I use the frame of 3060 (metric)
Aluminum profile.
The slot on the 3060 m extrusion is perfectly aligned with the mounting hole (30mm spacing)
SBR20 linear guide rail.
I had to ask to drill holes on the linear guide because this vendor did not drill holes by default.
Most other vendors have pre-developed rails.
I need the rails and drive screws at hand before I finish some design dimensions.
The spacing between the mounting surface of the guide rail and the linear screw is very convenient (50mm)
When using the ball nut housing bracket (see diagram).
The 5mm spacing block creates the perfect spacing for the rail support and screw drive system. b.
The support frame is from 3060 (metric)
Aluminum profile.
This is the form and Y-axis.
I can order 3060 (metric)
Cut into small aluminum profiles from a shop in my hometown.
I think $90 is a bargain.
The \"feet\" of CNC is a Baltic birch, also for two Y-
I installed the shaft motor at the back.
My original intention was to install all the motors on the purchased bracket, but the Birch is too soft to support the diameter bracket on the x-axis and y-axis.
The bracket for the Fender washer may be working.
The motor support is designed and manufactured by 3/8 Baltic birch. c. The X-
The design of the shaft and Y-
Shaft, housing bracket using 5mm gasket and ball nut.
This time, 5mm gaskets are under the linear screw bearing block, not under the support of the ball nut housing.
The gantry back panel is designed to be as high as possible to provide lateral load stiffness.
The design attached requires the use of Baltic birch plywood.
I used \"but hopefully I did \".
To increase the stiffness, I also tie the vertical gantry support under the frame. d.
My CNC design also includes 2 small platforms for cable tow chains.
The desktop has an initial mid-fiber board surface attached to the 3060 frame, followed by another containing aluminum T-
For fixed slot forest. e. The Z-
Shaft installation and z
The shaft motor mounting plate is made of the \"and\" aluminum plate.
I designed Z.
Axis plates around the \"standard\" size plates I can buy.
I also provided space for a clear lexan side Shield to minimize dust reaching the bearing. a.
Most CNC is made with Baltic Birch, the only exception is Z-
Shaft mounting plate and the motor installation that comes with it.
I designed Z.
The shaft mounting plate around the size I can buy on eBay, without any size adjustment (1/2 \"x 6\" x 14 \").
I was then able to process all of the meter and back holes using the full size print output.
Instead of trying to directly measure and cut the hole position on the plate, print the full-size drawings, align the drawings to the aluminum plate seems more accurate, and mark all hole positions with the center punch.
For machining, I will start with the center bit and then use the appropriate metric bit and back hole.
Then, part of the manufacturing includes the purchase of the meter-made hole tap, drill bit and counter-hole drill for 5mm and 6mm cap head screws.
At hind sight, I should buy rice drill bits and taps from McMasterCarr.
The drill bit AliExpress in the faucet group is worthless, but the faucet is OK.
The counter hole is unique but works very well. The Z-
Shaft motor mounting plate is the only other plate I have made with aluminum.
I cut the aluminum into small size with my band saw and mark the hole position again using full size drawings.
I bought a whole saw for a large coupling opening. b.
The vertical gantry stand is made by gluing the two \"Baltic birch trees together, doubling the thickness and cutting the dimensions using a table saw and band saw.
Locate all holes using full size drawings.
Sometimes the drawings are pieced together because I can only print up to 11 \"x 17\" drawings. c.
As mentioned earlier, the Y support plate is sandwiched between the 3060 extrusion and the linear guide rail and the ball screw, made of a \"Birch.
The gantry backrest is also made of the Baltic birch tree and I think it is strong enough to have the stiffness of the linear guide rail.
In the latter view, this should be reflected in the plan.
\"Feet\" is also made with birch and also supports 2x-axis motors.
I also made the motor holder for the x and y axis with Birch.
Although the motor support provides good support, it is still challenging to obtain the motor coupling. d.
I drew all the exposed wooden parts in my favorite color: Kelly Green.
Then I sprayed a half.
Give it a glossy transparent coating with a little gloss and durability. e.
Having the main component at hand is a major step, but it doesn\'t start without hardware.
It is very hard to determine what hardware, where to buy from, and what size.
Everything is a metric, so I ordered everything between AliExpress and eBay.
I used a 90 degree bracket for 3060 frame accessories.
Most of the hardware is 5mm and 6mm screws, but I need a variety of screws of different lengths.
It is also painful to determine the mounting nut for 3060 extrusion.
I finally slipped t.
Foot and Y nut block
T-axis linear guide accessories
6060 frame angle bracket and screw bolt with rotating sliding T-
Nut on top surface.
It takes 2 to 3 weeks for all hardware to come from China. a.
Once I made most of the parts and all the hardware, the Assembly started.
I started with the framework.
Actually, the first step is to install Y-
Linear guide rail (
And Ball nuts)
And the \"y screw mounting platform\" extruded 3060 \". I used the T-
Sliding nut block (see picture)
So they had to slide to 3060.
With the addition of the mounting plate, it is best to reverse the frame.
Then there are 2 crossbars and X-
Direction extrusion was assembled with angle bracket and T-screw bolts.
This is very direct;
The only detail is to get the offset size of x-
The steering rod provides clearance for the support of the traction chain. b.
Next, install 4 end plates.
Again, these use T-
Slide nut block.
Each plate is different: the two front plates are mirror images of each other due to the countersunk holes.
I actually messed up a rear motor mounting plate and they are not mirror images of each other.
It is best to process the plane to the linear screw drive shaft (and motors)
Before installing them
Connect the ball screw nut to the ball screw, tighten the lock nut on the bearing block, and then install 2y-
Shaft screws drive to the Y screw mounting plate.
At this point you can rotate the frame to the rightside up. c.
Next, I install the \"side stand\" to Y-
Shaft bearing block.
I didn\'t connect the screw drive block until the end.
You want to put everything together before connecting the linear screw to make sure it moves freely.
Check if the mounting surface of the gantry plate is perpendicular to the top.
Then I installed the back panel of the gantry-wood’.
I cut it longer than expected.
I make sure that the gantry is perpendicular to the table top, cutting the length of the gantry back panel, fixing everything in place and then fixing and tightening. d. Attach the x-
Together with 5mm spaces, connect the shaft linear sliding and linear screws to the gantry back panel.
At this point, I temporarily attached the screw drive to the side gantry bracket.
Rotate the screw so that the gantry back plate is consistent with the rear motor mounting plate, and then rotate the entire frame to the rear motor plate and the gantry back plate.
To avoid touching the end of the screw drive, you must use the interval block.
After making sure all the squares are attached \"side support bottom Lace \"(
X perpendicular to Y)! e.
Put the frame back 4 feet. Detach the Y-
The shaft ball nut on the side of the gantry supports and ensures the free operation of the gantry.
Connect the Z board to X-axis slides.
This is some of the problems I have.
When the fourth set of slider blocks is tightened, the movement starts binding.
The only aluminum plate I bought must be warped.
I can\'t find a set of shims to get rid of the problem, the fourth set is still loose today but does not affect the operation. f.
Connect the remaining z-
Linear sliding and spiral driving of the shaft (and nut)to the Z-plate.
The radiator plate is made by doubling it like a side gantry bracket.
Before connecting the ball nut, the movement of the radiator plate should be tested.
I also created the clip for the Porter cable router.
I added holes to access X-axis ball nut. g.
Installation of aluminum Z-
Shaft motor mounting plate.
Connect the 4 motor brackets to the z-plate motor brackets and install them to the Z-plate. Mount the Z-
Shaft motor and coupling. h.
Next, I installed the motor on the x and y axis.
I ended up building the interval box with 3/8 Baltic birch to install the motor.
They are strong enough to be easily fixed and tightened, however, these boxes severely limit access to the motor coupling fixing screws.
There is room for improvement in this part of my design. i.
Limit switches, support plates for e-chains and e-chains are installed.
Best Y-
Install the shaft limit switch in front of the work.
Wire the limit switch to the rest of the motor.
Transport the cable back to the electronic box through the drag chain. j.
Install the desktop: this is not going smoothly.
I have to drill 23 countersunk holes precisely.
I can\'t use CNC because the connection point is out of range.
I\'m using a turn-nut.
So the assembly involves connecting all the screws, aligning the nuts to the slot, and trying to put the top on the slot so that each nut falls into the slot.
I need a mallet to convince some people.
In the rear view: I can put the nut in the slot in the approximate position, put the top on it, and then use the rare-
Ground the magnet, position the nut, and insert the bolt.
Then I used t-tracks.
I added a clear side shield to the top and attached the bottom side plate. k.
Now the mechanical assembly is complete.
I had to go back and tighten the lock nut on the fixed straight block (BK12)
To reduce the rebound.
I also replaced the fixing screw with the screw in the fixed linear block (BK12)
To be safer. a.
The size of the motor becomes another big problem.
I don\'t know how big a Motor I need.
I hope to process aluminum one day so 425 inch-
An ounce of torque sounds reasonable.
I ended up buying a 4 motor system from eBay as a kit.
Buying all components as a suite reduces the concern that all components match each other.
The kit comes with two 36 v power supplies and four 425 in-
Oz stepping motor, 4 motor drivers (DQ542MA)
And DB25 distribution board. b.
I made a wooden box with a transparent plastic window.
I\'m sure it violates all the safety specifications, but it offers features that are easy to install at an affordable price.
I designed it with exhaust fan to keep the heat, I provide input air by the heating vent filter installed on the other side.
I installed a switch (
There is also a junction box)
120 v power supply for 36 v power supply, 5 v power supply and indicator light. c.
The component does not provide an electrical diagram, but is provided from the dealer after handling some startup issues.
For some reason, no \"enable\" input is required for cabling on the 4-axis system drive.
The dip switch settings and complete wiring diagram are provided in the attached file. d.
I used 6 limit switches (
Each extreme on each axis).
I set up 3 of them independently (
X home, Y home, Z Home)
, So 3 are consumed in 5 inputs of the breakout board.
The other 3 limit switches are in series, E-
Stop consuming the fifth input.
I don\'t have input for tool zero.
All switches are wired and are usually turned off.
Please look at the wiring diagram. e.
The Mach 3 software seems to be standard for machine control, so I purchased an \"old\" Dell poweredge 745 with a dedicated video driver.
The most important part;
It has a parallel port, which is what Mach 3 needs.
I have Windows 7 (32 bit)installed.
The Mach 3 should only run on 32-bit machines.
The motor does not always run very smoothly despite the minimum requirements of this machine.
Just run the task manager and I can hear the motor jump.
Every time the process window is updated, the motor makes a harsh sound.
I am considering a \"smooth step \". f.
The motor driver dip switch is set for 2. 84 amps (dip switches 1-3)
Half power holding torque (dip switch 4)
400 steps per round (dip switches 5-8).
The motor becomes hot when the hold torque is set to full power.
One feature of these stepping motors is that the more steps each turn, the lower the torque, so it is advantageous to minimize the number of steps per turn.
The linear screw is 5mm per turn, 400 steps per turn, and the accuracy is about.
000492/step resolution or 2032 step/inch. g.
I have Mach3 set to 25,000Hz.
Before installing the motor to the screw drive, I can\'t get the motor to run reliably without flameout or running freely.
I really don\'t know what the correct term is, but it\'s not running reliably.
If there is anything else running on the computer, everything will start choking.
This computer seems to meet the minimum requirements, but it suffocates if anything else is running.
I didn\'t connect it to any network, so it won\'t get stuck because of Microsoft or virus updates.
I usually start the computer 10 minutes before I want to use it so that Microsoft can settle down.
The maximum speed I set is 60 inch kilometers per minute.
I wanted to double this, but I was hesitant.
Any suggestions would be appreciated.
Is there a max RPM for the stepping motor or do I need a \"smooth step\" to increase the speed? h.
One of the four motor drives was defective and replaced after sharing the video it didn\'t work with the vendor via YouTube video.
The Chinese supplier responded very quickly and then provided the wiring diagram and answer for my question about holding the torque (dip switch #4). i.
To improve the speed, I consider buying the Warp9 \"smooth steps\", but I can\'t get a direct answer to the simple question from a US supplier.
I may try this board in the future.
I want to know the command of the board buffer (
And the calculation of stepping motion)
In addition to providing the clock for the drive?
If the circuit board only provides a frequency generator, does Mach3 also have to generate a pulse command? j.
I also plan to use different breakout boards (BOB)
More than the one that comes with the motor kit.
I want to control the spindle with a built-in relay.
I bought it and connected it to run the motor normally but none of the input sensors work.
I gave it back to Amazon and got a replacement that thought it was defective.
The second one doesn\'t work either.
When trying to troubleshoot, I found that my parallel port only output 3.
75 V vs 5 V.
Until today, I don\'t know if the 5 v parallel connection is valid.
I got a reply in Amazon\'s comments and I have to provide 5 v to the sensor.
I have never seen the wiring diagram of this board that requires a 5 volt sensor.
This is still a mystery to me. a.
As mentioned, I have an older version of SolidWorks for CAD that meets all my design needs.
Parts are designed in 3D and can also create components. b.
The second software required is the software that turns CAD into CAM.
I have been using the trial version of CamBam ($149).
This software is best for 2D or 2. 5D parts.
I have not tried 3D. stl files.
CamBam can use a clear update of the user interface.
It\'s awkward to use, but it\'s a lot of features.
It is very troublesome and users can easily make mistakes when they are in a hurry.
CamBam can be from.
Dfx files that SolidWorks can create.
Make sure to create the dfx drawing in full scale, otherwise you will have the scaled part.
After import.
Put the dfx file into CamBam and you have to define material thickness, tool properties, features to cut, etc.
There are several good-looking programs in Vectric (Cut2D (desktop, $149)and (
VCarve desktop, $349)).
These programs have a better user interface than CamBam.
I am considering the logo making capability of VCarve.
I can\'t afford any professional courses they offer unless I do business.
For amateurs, Aspire is $1995. c.
Then you need a program that reads the CAM file and turns it into machine motion.
Mach3 is one of the standards, so I purchased a license for it.
You can run up to 500 lines of code with a free trial, but it\'s not too far away, especially if you want to do text.
Set double Y-a bit trickyaxis. I used the A-
Run as a slave axis of Y-axis.
CNC almost crashed when I accidentally hit \"auto home\" and I didn\'t follow y axis from Axisaxis. E-
Stop for rescue! a.
I have been working on parts for months.
In fact, most of the parts I make are made for CNC machines. I made the e-
Stop two iterations of the case, display and keyboard holder, and dust-proof shoes.
I also need to make more tweaks to enable the plugin.
I am trying to improve the dust removal effect with a different dust cover design, I have attached the cyclone dust collector (
Great work)to my ShopVac. a.
I start making very simple parts as soon as I start running.
All limit switches and E-
Stop is wired for \"normal off.
This is considered \"best practice \".
Since the breakout board has only 5 inputs, I have to connect 3 limit switches in series (
See wiring diagram).
Sometimes, during the run, Mach3 stops and indicates that the limit switch is hit.
Although it didn\'t tell me which limit switch was triggered.
I think I have a loose connection somewhere as I am not near any limit switch.
I checked and twisted all the connections and found no problems.
Long story short: I think it\'s electric noise on the line.
To save money, I used the light line and speaker line on the limit switch.
I replaced all limit switch lines with 2 conductor shield cables and will shield the ground.
I have no problem since then. b.
Another limit switch problem: on one occasion, I accidentally triggered one of the limit switches, which stopped the stepping motor as expected.
The question is, now that the limit switch is triggered, how should you power the motor to remove it from the limit switch?
I had to shorten the switch and move it off the switch.
This can be painful for the hard-to-reach Y-
Shaft limit switch. a.
This is a great project.
I am very satisfied with my design.
Possible upgrades in the future include aluminum rack brackets and x-
Shaft back panel, smooth stepping and possible Vcarve desktop. b.
I hope this will provide information.
I shared my design methodology, manufacturing methodology, electronic knowledge, software requirements and lessons learned.
Now, do something! c.
If there is no software or computer, the total cost is about $1400.
Update: I have added some pictures of the completed project: Beauty and the Beast, dust boots, bottle opener and the end of the railway brdige book.
I\'m also using vector V.
I like carving the table now.
As seen in the bottle opener, this is the perfect choice for mosaic.
I also reconnected my limit switch to get the port of the zero board I made. UPDATE 2: 1-
2018 manufactured aluminum side and back of gantry.
All cuts on CNC.
Future Upgrade: 2. 2Kw spindle.
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