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from the archives: mind of fire

by:QY Precision      2019-09-25
Since he was a graduate student, his academic career has been swallowed up by the fire.
Professor Carlton University directs research in one of the most unusual laboratories in the country: $10-million, 10-
He investigated the floor facilities of houses, office buildings, subway cars and tunnel fires.
He explores how flames and smoke interact with today\'s increasingly complex structures in search of better design and fire prevention measures.
His work involves fluid mechanics, heat transfer, thermodynamics, civil engineering, and computer modeling.
Even crowd psychology plays a role because fire engineers have to think about how people react in an emergency.
Hadjisophocleous, 55, said: \"That\'s why it\'s so challenging . \" He is a well-known national research chairman in the field of fire safety engineering.
\"There are so many parameters that are working, but once you know the parameters, you can make predictions about the fire and how it will move.
\"Fire has been the subject of his professional curiosity for 30 years.
While a basically logical creature-fire is, after all, controlled by physics-its behavior continues to appeal to Haji\'s mind animals, sometimes even scaring him.
\"Everyone is going through a fire,\" he said . \".
\"Everyone knows that there is a controlled fire in their fireplace or camp.
But it\'s a very scary situation when it\'s an uncontrolled fire.
\"I don\'t think most people realize how quickly things can go wrong in a fire.
Hadjisophocleous has seen this-it\'s in his lab.
-Carlton\'s Fire Research Laboratory is located on the rolling farmland outside the Mississippi mill, an hour\'s drive from the main university campus.
The place looks like a small factory: There are various concrete buildings, some trailers and container boxes.
A crane with a fully extended arm mysteriously stands in the parking lot.
Inside, however, the purpose of all this became apparent: The air was filled with soot.
For the past four years, Carlton\'s researchers have been setting fire in the lab.
The lab consists of a fully meter tunnel in which Hadjisophocleous can simulate a subway fire.
And a 10-
Floor atrium-which researchers use to study smoke behavior in high-rise buildings-and a \"Burn Hall\" that is enough to accommodate frame houses \".
Today, Devin Glennie, a 25-year-old master student, is preparing for the next fire at the cave lab.
Glenny built a metal room with two open windows.
He intends to ignite it to test heat transfer to a nearby \"target\" wall and compare the results with 12 similar experiments he has configured using other windows.
Windows affect the amount of oxygen entering the room-a key factor in controlling the size of the fire.
These experiments will help him understand the conditions under which the fire spread to neighboring families.
Glenny set his goal with a long, thin torch
Room built on fire: arson in the name of science.
Fire in the room-
Resistant to ceramic insulation, there are propane burners on the floor to simulate real fires by producing a large amount of black smoke. (
Smoke is a product of poor combustion because soot particles-unburned carbon-are taken away by hot gases. )
Smoke is discharged from the top of the atrium through an exhaust chamber measuring oxygen and carbon dioxide levels.
Researchers can infer the intensity of the fire by calculating how much oxygen is absorbed in each cubic meter of smoke during combustion.
The sensor records the temperature inside the room and on the adjacent walls, where the transfer of heat on a given surface (heat flux)
Measurement is also.
Nearby computer screens provide researchers with real-time data.
Within 10 minutes, the Flames boil in the room and curl outside the two windows.
Room temperature rises to 700 degrees Celsius, well beyond the \"flash\" point lit by any combustible material in the room.
When the fire is fully developed, the temperature peak is 900 °c.
Half the time.
An hour\'s experiment is over, and the lab is filled with disturbing smoke.
Glenny checked the room and it got dark in some places and still emits heat.
He declared the experiment a great success: it was the first time his equipment had not melted.
Growing up, George Haggis had a boy\'s crush on fire, but there was also a Cypriot respect for fire.
\"I like to have a fire like any boy,\" he said . \"
\"But in Cyprus, the Jungle Fire is a common thing because our summer is long and dry.
I saw a few places very close to our town.
Because his father was a truck driver, Hadjisophocleous also had a strong interest in the engine of the car.
He studied engineering at the University and then worked as a mechanic in the army during his voluntary service.
He spent another two years at Emirates.
Before a friend convinced him to join the New Brunswick University, he was an air-conditioning engineer.
There, he completed his graduate degree in mechanical engineering and rediscovered his passion for fire.
In his doctoral thesis, he simulates what happens when a tanker with liquefied natural gas is exposed to flames.
He said: \"My initial interest was to simulate this complex problem, including heat transfer of flame, liquid, evaporation of gas, inside the tanker, and increased pressure.
They are very challenging questions.
\"His charm is once again ignited, and haggilo has received a job from the National Research Council of Canada.
Over the next decade, he developed a computer model to assess and manage fire risks.
In March 2001, he moved to Carlton to launch the fire safety engineering project, which currently has 19 graduate students.
Carlton researchers studied the effects of fire on gypsum board, supporting beams, wood floors, steel and wooden columns.
They studied the smoke movement at the top.
All the buildings are built to make the building safer.
They will turn more attention to the subway.
Later this year, Hadjisophocleous is expected to ship four used subway cars from the Toronto Transportation Commission, which he will use at Carlton\'s specially designed tunnel lab. The 37. 5-metre-
Long lab has a track on the floor to accommodate cars, a sprinkler system, an air sampling system that measures smoke, and a range of sensors that measure temperature and heat flow.
The subway has been the target of the terrorist attacks in Tokyo. 1995), Paris (1995)Moscow (2004)and London (2005).
They are also at the scene of many deadly fires, including 2003 in Daegu, South Korea, killing 198 people.
The main safety function of most North American subways is to rely on a tunnel ventilation system, not a sprinkler.
The ventilation system is designed to move smoke in one direction, allowing passengers to escape in another direction.
Some engineers believe that the sprinkler system will produce steam in tunnel fires and hurt more people than they help.
But Carlton\'s researchers have determined that sprinklers should be part of the subway fire safety system.
Hadjisophocleous and his team found that the ventilation system was more effective when used in combination with the sprinkler.
Sprint limits the growth of fire (
Even in the Subway car)
, Cooling the smoke and reducing the number of \"upstream\" inflows into the tunnel.
Earlier this year, Hadjisophocleous ignited his first subway car in an experiment commissioned by South Korea after the Daegu tragedy.
In Daegu, an unemployed taxi driver lit two boxes of gasoline in the subway car;
The fire spread to six.
Then take the train to another car parked next to it.
Koreans ship a subway car to Carlton fire lab and ask haggis to assess what will happen in a controlled fire.
They want to have a better understanding of this fire in order to improve the design of the tunnel fire protection system.
Officials from the City of Ottawa and Ottawa fire departments were invited to watch the test fire as the city\'s rapid transit plan called for the construction of a downtown tunnel.
Earlier this year, Subway tests at Carleton\'s tunnel lab surprised hagglow even.
\"At the same time, it\'s so fun and scary: see how fast the tunnel gets dark with smoke.
I mean seconds, \"he said.
\"This is not what we expected.
Too much smoke.
In such a short period of time, conditions become so difficult to maintain . . . . . . This is terrible. ”1.
On the sofa in the living room, there is no burning cigarette drop.
It causes pyrolysis, a chemical reaction that releases combustible gas from wood, cloth, and other materials when heated.
Mixing gas with oxygen;
The mixture was ignited by a cigarette fire. 2.
By radiating to the sofa, releasing more gas, the flame will supply itself.
A flame burning with smoke and heat rises to the ceiling, bringing more air into the fire. 3.
The bathtub effect extends along the ceiling to the wall.
Hot gas fills a layer under the ceiling like an inverted bathtub.
Layer down;
It emits ever-increasing heat. 4.
Once the layer reaches 500 to 600 °c, critical heat is emitted to everything in the room.
Moments-moments of flashing-anything combustible will rise in flames. 5.
The fully developed whirlwind of fire caused the rapid spread of the fire.
The flame rolls over the ceiling and windows.
The temperature soared above 1000 °c.
The fire occurred between 2000 and 2009, and 40% of the deadly fire in Ontario occurred between 10 pence. m. and 6 a. m.
The fire chief\'s office believes half of the fires can be prevented.
Fire starts at home: the vast majority (86 per cent)
Of the 833 fatal incidents involving residential fires
Smoking is most likely to cause a fatal house fire (17 per cent), arson (13 per cent)cooking (10 per cent)
Improper handling of matches or lighters (6 per cent)
Wire Problem (4 per cent)or candles (3 per cent).
There was no smoke alarm or no operation in 36 fatal fires.
A 2004 study in the United StatesS.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology found that typical modern fire burners burn longer than when smoke alarms were introduced in the 1970 s, but burn hotter and faster.
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