Factory automation today often includes better than computerized numerical control (CNC) equipment to manufacture parts or assemble finished goods. In large factories automatically guided vehicles (AGVs) are essential for efficient and reliable transport of raw material, parts or finished goods. Also, they are statistically safer than manually operated vehicles by eliminating human error.
Manufacturing operations today require timely and efficient transportation of materials in order to maximize production while minimizing array. Many industries can get started with using AGVs including those for pulp and paper, steel, food, automotive, electronics, pharmaceutical, health care and many significantly more.
They're not limited to just industrial spots. They can be even found in hospitals to deliver goods of all types safely, efficiently and reliably 24/7. Assorted types of vehicles end up being found from tow vehicles to fork lift types and even small carts. They're designed payloads from several pounds to many tons.
These vehicles are self contained and computer-driven with capacity to track where materials have been moved within the facility or in and out of it, and all associated with need for a separate operator. This tracking ability adds significantly to the longevity of moving product.
A motion controller works in conjunction with a tracking choice precisely move along a predefined target. Navigation is typically done by an embedded wire in the floor, or an optically guided system after having a reflective line painted on the factory floor. Newer guidance systems use lasers or inertial guidance systems to accommodate special situations or needs. An automation controller monitors the vehicle functions and is used for data acquisition and machine vision. This provides collision avoidance and other safety functions.
An important thing in the design of AGVs is the skills train that propels the vehicle. Sell off the application of electric vehicle motors and also a servo drive to precisely control the speed, and steering for this vehicle. The type of motor commonly used is a permanent magnet brushless AC servomotor. These motors use high energy product magnets close to the rotor and tight tolerances to produce high efficiency within a small package.
Higher efficiency refers to longer operation within the AGV before battery charging is required. Because the motors not have an brushes they have very low maintenance compared to DC brush type motors and are appropriate for the AGV enterprise. In order to operate without brushes, brushless AC motors have an integral position feedback device for appropriate excitation of the windings. Because AGVs rely on their self contained batteries various charging systems are available including battery swap, automated battery swap and opportunity charging.